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Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a pluripotent lipid mediator acting through plasma membrane-associated LPA(x) receptors that transduce many, but not all, of its effects. We identify peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) as an intracellular receptor for LPA. The transcription factor PPARgamma is activated by several lipid ligands, but(More)
In the present study we investigated the effects of L-pyroglutamic acid (PGA), which predominantly accumulates in the inherited metabolic diseases glutathione synthetase deficiency (GSD) and γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase deficiency (GCSD), on some in vitro parameters of energy metabolism and lipid biosynthesis. We evaluated the rates of CO2 production and(More)
The involvement of platelet-activating factor (PAF) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced leukocyte accumulation in the rat pleural cavity was investigated. Intrathoracic (i.t.) injection of LPS (250 ng/cavity) induced a marked increase in the number of neutrophils at 1 h, which was maximum within 6-12 h, reducing after 24 h. In parallel, an increase in blood(More)
Oxidation of human low density lipoprotein (LDL) generates proinflammatory mediators and underlies early events in atherogenesis. We identified mediators in oxidized LDL that induced an inflammatory reaction in vivo, and activated polymorphonuclear leukocytes and cells ectopically expressing human platelet-activating factor (PAF) receptors. Oxidation of a(More)
Astrocyte and microglia cells play an important role in the central nervous system (CNS). They react to various external aggressions by becoming reactive and releasing neurotrophic and/or neurotoxic factors. Rutin is a flavonoid found in many plants and has been shown to have some biological activities, but its direct effects on cells of the CNS have not(More)
The present study investigated the effects of glutaric acid (GA), which predominantly accumulates in glutaric acidemia type I (GA-I), on somein vitro parameters of energy metabolism in cerebral cortex of rats. We first evaluated CO2 production from [U-14C] acetate, as well as ATP levels in brain of young Wistar rats. The effect of the acid on the activities(More)
Macrophages have important roles in both lipid metabolism and inflammation and are central to immunity to intracellular pathogens. Foam-like, lipid-laden macrophages are present during the course of mycobacterial infection and have recently been implicated in mycobacterial pathogenesis. In this study, we analyzed the molecular mechanisms underlying the(More)
Lipid bodies (also known as lipid droplets) are emerging as inflammatory organelles with roles in the innate immune response to infections and inflammatory processes. In this study, we identified MCP-1 as a key endogenous mediator of lipid body biogenesis in infection-driven inflammatory disorders and we described the cellular mechanisms and signaling(More)
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are a unique population of CD25+CD4+ T cells that regulate innate and adaptive immune responses and have the ability to control the excessive or misdirected effects of the immune system. This modulation involves different mechanisms, such as the suppression of T cell proliferation and cytokine production, the secretion of(More)
Lipid bodies (lipid droplets) are lipid-rich organelles with functions in cell metabolism and signaling. Here, we investigate the mechanisms of Trypanosoma cruzi-induced lipid body formation and their contributions to host-parasite interplay. We demonstrate that T. cruzi-induced lipid body formation in macrophages occurs in a Toll-like receptor 2-dependent(More)