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BACKGROUND Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are effective in approximately 70% of patients with a major depressive episode, but therapeutic changes usually require 2 weeks of administration to become clinically relevant. Adjunct light therapy has been proposed to hasten the effects of drug treatment. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate(More)
The molecular mechanisms driving the biological clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus may play a role in mood disorders. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (-50 T/C) falling into the effective promoter region (nt -171 to +29) of the gene coding for glycogen synthase kinase 3-beta (GSK3-beta) has been linked with different age at onset(More)
Genetic studies in medicine exploited age of onset as a criterion to delineate subgroups of illness. Bipolar patients stratified with this criterion were shown to share clinical characteristics and patterns of inheritance of illness. The molecular mechanisms driving the biological clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus may play a role in(More)
BACKGROUND Drug resistance remains a persistent source of morbidity and mortality for patients with bipolar depression. A growing number of clinical studies support the usefulness of chronotherapeutic interventions, such as total sleep deprivation (TSD) and light therapy (LT), in the treatment of nonresistant bipolar depression. METHOD To investigate the(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW Clinical studies support a bidirectional link between depression and neurological diseases. Here we review the most recent findings supporting the hypothesis that major depression is a medical illness of the brain which can be elicited by neurological illnesses. RECENT FINDINGS In the last year major improvements in brain-imaging(More)
BACKGROUND A functional polymorphism within the promoter of the serotonin transporter has been shown to influence the antidepressant response to serotonergic drug treatments and to total sleep deprivation (TSD). The short-term relapse that follows acute response to TSD has been successfully prevented by combining TSD with light therapy. The mechanism of(More)
This review summarizes a scientific dialogue between representatives in non-pharmacological treatment options of affective disorders. Among the recently introduced somatic treatments for depression those with most evidenced efficacy will be discussed. The first part of this article presents current opinions about the clinical applications of transcranial(More)
Benzodiazepines can shift the phase of circadian rhythms in mammalian species, but few data are available on their phase-response effects in humans, and on possible links between timing of administration and hypnotic efficacy. Using a placebo-controlled, cross-over design, we evaluated the hypnotic effect of lormetazepam 0.03 mg/kg and placebo in 38(More)
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