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Viral infections commonly induce expression of type I interferon (IFN) genes. The induction is transient and involves transcriptional activation wherein a positive factor, IRF-1, binds to upstream regulatory cis elements. In the present study we report the isolation of a cDNA encoding a novel factor, termed IRF-2, that interacts with the same nucleotide(More)
The relationship between state transitions and the kinetic properties of the electron transfer chain has been studied in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The same turnover rate of cytochrome f was found in state 1 and 2. However, while DBMIB was inhibitory in both states, DCMU was effective only in state 1. These observations suggest that linear electron(More)
In this paper we report the molecular cloning of the gene encoding the bovine brain ribonuclease. The nucleotide sequence determined in this work shows a high degree of identity to the homologous gene encoding the bovine pancreatic ribonuclease. Processing of the primary transcripts of these genes also follows a similar pathway, splicing of the unique(More)
The multifunctional cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) plays a central role in host defence mechanisms and hematopoiesis. Furthermore, dysregulation of IL-6 gene expression is associated with the pathogenesis of various immunologically related diseases such as myeloma, systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis and Kaposi's sarcoma. The(More)
Although pancreatic ribonucleases are extensively studied proteins, little information is available on nucleic acids coding for these enzymes. Here, for the first time, the structure of a gene coding for such an enzyme, the well known bovine pancreatic ribonuclease, is reported. The coding region of this gene is devoid of introns, whereas the 5'(More)
Expression of the interleukin-6 (IL-6) gene is usually tightly controlled and may be induced in specific tissues only after treatment with appropriate stimuli. The molecular mechanisms responsible for IL-6 gene repression in specific tissues or cell lines remain poorly defined. In order to address this question we have studied two human breast carcinoma(More)
Mammalian pancreatic ribonucleases (RNase) form a family of extensively studied homologous proteins. Phylogenetic analyses, based on the primary structures of these enzymes, indicated that the presence of three homologous enzymes (pancreatic, seminal and brain ribonucleases) in the bovine species is due to gene duplication events, which occurred during the(More)
The expression of the IL-6 gene is usually tightly controlled and may be induced in specific tissues after treatment with appropriate stimuli. Although much is known about the inducible expression of the IL-6 gene, the molecular mechanisms responsible for its repression in specific tissues or cell types remain poorly defined. To address this question we(More)
High molecular weight, fully double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) has been recognized as the genetic material of many plant, animal, fungal, and bacterial viruses (Diplomaviruses); virus-specific dsRNA is also found in cells infected with single-stranded RNA viruses. DsRNA has been identified in a variety of apparently normal eucaryotic cells and is associated with(More)
A comparative study of the molecular mechanism of interleukin-6 (IL-6) gene induction on two breast-carcinoma-derived cell lines has been performed. MDA-MB-231 cells produce constitutive detectable levels of both secreted IL-6 and mRNA which, as expected, are dramatically enhanced following induction by either IL-1 beta or tumor necrosis factor-alpha(More)