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Viral infections commonly induce expression of type I interferon (IFN) genes. The induction is transient and involves transcriptional activation wherein a positive factor, IRF-1, binds to upstream regulatory cis elements. In the present study we report the isolation of a cDNA encoding a novel factor, termed IRF-2, that interacts with the same nucleotide(More)
The relationship between state transitions and the kinetic properties of the electron transfer chain has been studied in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The same turnover rate of cytochrome f was found in state 1 and 2. However, while DBMIB was inhibitory in both states, DCMU was effective only in state 1. These observations suggest that linear electron(More)
The multifunctional cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) plays a central role in host defence mechanisms and hematopoiesis. Furthermore, dysregulation of IL-6 gene expression is associated with the pathogenesis of various immunologically related diseases such as myeloma, systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis and Kaposi's sarcoma. The(More)
The expression of the IL-6 gene is usually tightly controlled and may be induced in specific tissues after treatment with appropriate stimuli. Although much is known about the inducible expression of the IL-6 gene, the molecular mechanisms responsible for its repression in specific tissues or cell types remain poorly defined. To address this question we(More)
Expression of the interleukin-6 (IL-6) gene is usually tightly controlled and may be induced in specific tissues only after treatment with appropriate stimuli. The molecular mechanisms responsible for IL-6 gene repression in specific tissues or cell lines remain poorly defined. In order to address this question we have studied two human breast carcinoma(More)
In two human cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and HeLa, the inducible expression of the interleukin-6 (IL-6) gene by two protein synthesis inhibitors, cycloheximide and anisomycin, was compared with the induction by the most potent physiological inducer of IL-6 described to date, interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta). In cycloheximide or anisomycin treated cells, the(More)
Phylogenetic analysis, based on the primary structures of mammalian pancreatic-type ribonucleases, indicated that gene duplication events, which occurred during the evolution of ancestral ruminants, gave rise to the three paralogous enzymes present in the bovine species. Herein we report data that demonstrate the existence of the orthologues of the bovine(More)
The data presented here show for the first time that the protein known as "ribonuclease (RNase) inhibitor" (RI or RNH1) is present not only in the cell cytosol, but also in mitochondria, the central organelles in cell redox homeostasis. This finding directly correlates with the reported ability of RI to protect the cell from oxidative stress, with its(More)
In recent years a number of hyperthermophilic micro-organisms of Sulfolobales have been found to produce trehalose from starch and dextrins. In our laboratory genes encoding the trehalosyl dextrin forming enzyme (TDFE) and the trehalose forming enzyme (TFE) of S. solfataricus MT4 have been cloned and expressed in E. coli (Rb791). Here we report the(More)
Recently, extracellular RNases of the RNase A superfamily, with the characteristic CKxxNTF sequence signature, have been identified in fish. This has led to the recognition that these RNases are present in the whole vertebrate subphylum. In fact, they comprise the only enzyme family unique to vertebrates. Four RNases from zebrafish (Danio rerio) have been(More)