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BACKGROUND Increased echogenicity of the substantia nigra (SN), as determined by transcranial sonography (TCS), is characteristic of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (iPD). The results of initial retrospective studies indicate that this ultrasound sign is specific for iPD and can help to differentiate it from atypical parkinsonian syndromes (aPS); however,(More)
Evidence for tissue iron deficiency in restless legs syndrome (RLS) is limited to the substantia nigra (SN). Using MRI, we assessed T2 values of various brain regions in 6 RLS patients and 19 controls and correlated them with sonographically assessed SN echogenicity. Both neuroimaging features are supposed to correlate with tissue iron content. Mean T2(More)
Cognitive decline and dementia are present in about 50% of patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). Based on the known involvement of the cholinergic system in PSP patients, and because rivastigmine, in contrast to other cholinesterase inhibitors, inhibits both acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase, we discuss clinical observations of(More)
The objective of this research was to evaluate a possible endophenotype in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2)-associated Parkinson's disease (PD). Ten symptomatic LRRK2 patients, 24 sporadic Parkinson's disease patients as well as 10 asymptomatic LRRK2 mutation carriers and 29 matched healthy controls underwent comprehensive clinical assessments with(More)
Much effort has been put in the identification of risk factors and pre-motor markers for Parkinson's disease (PD). In contrast to many of the pre-motor markers, SN hyperechogenicity (SN+) assessed by transcranial sonography (TCS) has been found to be conclusive for vulnerability for PD. In two centers in Germany 1204 individuals ≥50 years without the(More)
Enlarged substantia nigra hyperechogenicity (SN+) assessed by transcranial sonography (TCS) may be associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) risk markers such as impaired motor performance and hyposmia. The aim of this multicenter cross-sectional study was to define the association between SN+ and these risk markers in a large population older than 50 years(More)
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