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BACKGROUND Increased echogenicity of the substantia nigra (SN), as determined by transcranial sonography (TCS), is characteristic of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (iPD). The results of initial retrospective studies indicate that this ultrasound sign is specific for iPD and can help to differentiate it from atypical parkinsonian syndromes (aPS); however,(More)
Evidence for tissue iron deficiency in restless legs syndrome (RLS) is limited to the substantia nigra (SN). Using MRI, we assessed T2 values of various brain regions in 6 RLS patients and 19 controls and correlated them with sonographically assessed SN echogenicity. Both neuroimaging features are supposed to correlate with tissue iron content. Mean T2(More)
The objective of this research was to evaluate a possible endophenotype in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2)-associated Parkinson's disease (PD). Ten symptomatic LRRK2 patients, 24 sporadic Parkinson's disease patients as well as 10 asymptomatic LRRK2 mutation carriers and 29 matched healthy controls underwent comprehensive clinical assessments with(More)
Serum erythromycin concentration data from several repetitive dosing studies were analyzed with newly developed computer methods for fitting multiple-dose data and generating nonlinear least-squares estimates of pharmacokinetic parameters. This analysis indicates that the pharmacokinetics of erythromycin can be described by a one-compartment linear model(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Using transcranial B-mode sonography (TCS), the first morphological marker for restless legs syndrome (RLS), hypoechogenicity of the substantia nigra (SN) has been found. The aim of this study was to validate SN hypoechogenicity as a morphological marker for RLS in a large patient cohort and to investigate further RLS-associated brain(More)
Much effort has been put in the identification of risk factors and pre-motor markers for Parkinson's disease (PD). In contrast to many of the pre-motor markers, SN hyperechogenicity (SN+) assessed by transcranial sonography (TCS) has been found to be conclusive for vulnerability for PD. In two centers in Germany 1204 individuals ≥50 years without the(More)
Enlarged substantia nigra hyperechogenicity (SN+) assessed by transcranial sonography (TCS) may be associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) risk markers such as impaired motor performance and hyposmia. The aim of this multicenter cross-sectional study was to define the association between SN+ and these risk markers in a large population older than 50 years(More)
Cognitive decline and dementia are present in about 50% of patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). Based on the known involvement of the cholinergic system in PSP patients, and because rivastigmine, in contrast to other cholinesterase inhibitors, inhibits both acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase, we discuss clinical observations of(More)
Alcohol dependence is a severe disorder contributing substantially to the global burden of disease. Despite the detrimental consequences of chronic alcohol abuse and dependence, effective prevention strategies as well as treatment options are largely missing to date. Accumulating evidence suggests that gene-environment interactions, including epigenetic(More)
Several studies have shown an association of alcohol dependence with DNA methylation (DNAm), suggesting that environmentally-induced changes on epigenomic variation may play an important role in alcohol dependence. In the present study, we analysed genome-wide DNAm profiles of purified CD3+ T-cells from pre- and post-treatment alcohol dependent patients, as(More)
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