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Interleukin-12 is critical to the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in multiple species. Interleukin-10, a dominant endogenous inhibitor of interleukin-12, is largely protective in these experimental surrogates for multiple sclerosis. Such data have suggested that an interleukin-12/interleukin-10 immunoregulatory circuit is a key(More)
PURPOSE A novel nanomedicine, CYT-6091, constructed by simultaneously binding recombinant human tumor necrosis factor alpha (rhTNF) and thiolyated polyethylene glycol to the surface of 27-nm colloidal gold particles, was tested in a phase I dose escalation clinical trial in advanced stage cancer patients. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN CYT-6091, whose dosing was(More)
Among vaccine-preventable diseases, measles is the preeminent killer of children worldwide. Infection with measles virus (MV) is associated with prolonged suppression of cell-mediated immune responses, a phenomenon that is thought to underlie the susceptibility to secondary infections that accounts for most measles-related mortality. Interleukin (IL)-12 is(More)
Although IFN-alpha forms the foundation of therapy for chronic hepatitis C, only a minority of patients has a sustained response to IFN-alpha alone. The antiviral activities of IFN-alpha formed the rationale for its use in viral hepatitis. However, IFN-alpha and the other Type I IFNs are also pleiotropic immune regulators. Type I IFNs can promote IFN-gamma(More)
Therapeutic use of type I IFN (IFN-alpha/beta) has become common. Many of the diverse diseases targeted are marked by pathogenetic abnormalities in cell-mediated immunity (CMI), these cellular immune responses either causing injury to the host, lacking sufficient vigor for virus or tumor clearance, or both. In general, therapeutic efficacy is limited. It is(More)
Interferon-beta is a remarkably pleiotropic molecule. Antiviral, pro- and antiproliferative, pro- and antiapoptotic, and complex immunoregulatory activities have all been described. The precise mechanism(s) that underlie the beneficial effects of interferon-beta in multiple sclerosis remain poorly understood; this has hindered progress in the search for(More)
Suppressed IL-12 production and maladaptive immune activation, both of which are ameliorated by successful highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), are thought to play important roles in the immunopathogenesis of chronic HIV infection. Despite the important effects of the immunological and virological events of early HIV infection on subsequent disease(More)
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