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Chord sequences are a compact and useful description of music, representing each beat or measure in terms of a likely distribution over individual notes without specifying the notes exactly. Transcribing music audio into chord sequences is essential for harmonic analysis, and would be an important component in content-based retrieval and indexing, but(More)
SUMMARY We examine the effect of clamping variables for approximate inference in undirected graphical models with pairwise relationships and discrete variables. • For any number of variable labels, we demonstrate that clamping and summing approximate sub-partition functions can lead only to a decrease in the partition function estimate for TRW, and an(More)
Belief propagation is a remarkably effective tool for inference, even when applied to networks with cycles. It may be viewed as a way to seek the minimum of the Bethe free energy, though with no convergence guarantee in general. A variational perspective shows that, compared to exact inference, this minimization employs two forms of approximation: (i) the(More)