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Point mutations frequently cause genetic diseases by disrupting the correct pattern of pre-mRNA splicing. The effect of a point mutation within a coding sequence is traditionally attributed to the deduced change in the corresponding amino acid. However, some point mutations can have much more severe effects on the structure of the encoded protein, for(More)
Point mutations in the coding regions of genes are commonly assumed to exert their effects by altering single amino acids in the encoded proteins. However, there is increasing evidence that many human disease genes harbour exonic mutations that affect pre-mRNA splicing. Nonsense, missense and even translationally silent mutations can inactivate genes by(More)
The opposing effects of SF2/ASF and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) A1 influence alternative splicing in vitro. SF2/ASF or hnRNP A1 complementary DNAs were transiently overexpressed in HeLa cells, and the effect on alternative splicing of several cotransfected reporter genes was measured. Increased expression of SF2/ASF activated proximal 5'(More)
Numerous disease-associated point mutations exert their effects by disrupting the activity of exonic splicing enhancers (ESEs). We previously derived position weight matrices to predict putative ESEs specific for four human SR proteins. The score matrices are part of ESEfinder, an online resource to identify ESEs in query sequences. We have now carried out(More)
Increasing survival of motor neuron 2, centromeric (SMN2) exon 7 inclusion to express more full-length SMN protein in motor neurons is a promising approach to treat spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), a genetic neurodegenerative disease. Previously, we identified a potent 2'-O-(2-methoxyethyl) (MOE) phosphorothioate-modified antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) that(More)
We have collected over half a million splice sites from five species-Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans and Arabidopsis thaliana-and classified them into four subtypes: U2-type GT-AG and GC-AG and U12-type GT-AG and AT-AC. We have also found new examples of rare splice-site categories, such as U12-type introns(More)
MOTIVATION Alternative splicing (AS) is a pre-mRNA maturation process leading to the expression of multiple mRNA variants from the same primary transcript. More than 90% of human genes are expressed via AS. Therefore, quantifying the inclusion level of every exon is crucial for generating accurate transcriptomic maps and studying the regulation of AS. (More)
SR proteins are nuclear phosphoproteins with a characteristic Ser/Arg-rich domain and one or two RNA recognition motifs. They are highly conserved in animals and plants and play important roles in spliceosome assembly and alternative splicing regulation. We have now isolated and partially sequenced a plant protein, which crossreacts with antibodies to human(More)
We have identified six distinct factors necessary for pre-mRNA splicing in vitro by selective inactivation and complementation studies, and by fractionation procedures. Splicing factor 1 (SF1) is sensitive to micrococcal nuclease, and appears to consist of at least U1 and U2 snRNPs, since splicing is inhibited when the 5' termini of U1 and U2 snRNAs are(More)
We have examined the functional significance of the organization of pre-mRNA splicing factors in a speckled distribution in the mammalian cell nucleus. Upon microinjection into living cells of oligonucleotides or antibodies that inhibit pre-mRNA splicing in vitro, we observed major changes in the organization of splicing factors in vivo. Interchromatin(More)