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Routing protocol is taking a vital role in the modern communication networks. A routing protocol is a protocol which is responsible to determine how routers communicate with each other and forward the packets through the optimal path to travel from a source node to a destination node. Among the routing protocols, Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol(More)
In cognitive radio networks, unlicensed users need to learn from environmental changes. This is a process that can be done in a cooperative or non-cooperative manner. Due to the competition for channel utilization among unlicensed users, the non-cooperative approach may lead to overcrowding in the available channels. This paper is about a fuzzy logic based(More)
Over the last years, we have witnessed a rapid deployment of real-time applications on the Internet as well as many research works about Quality of Service (QoS), in particular IPv4 (Internet Protocol version 4). The inevitable exhaustion of the remaining IPv4 address pool has become progressively evident. As the evolution of Internet Protocol (IP)(More)
The unifying concept underlying frac-tals, chaos and power laws is self-similarity. Self-similarity, or invariance against changes in scale or size, is an attribute of many laws of nature and innumerable phenomena in the world around us. Self-similarity is, in fact, one of the decisive symmetries that shapes our universe and our efforts to comprehend it.
The main goals of the paper are towards an understanding of the delay process in best-effort Internet for both non-congested and congested networks. A dedicated measurement system is reported for delay measurements in IP routers, which follows specifications of the IETF RFC 2679. The system is using both passive measurements and active probing. Dedicated(More)