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— Cognitive Radio Networks (CRNs) are emerging as a solution to increase the spectrum utilization by using unused or less used spectrum in radio environments. The basic idea is to allow unlicensed users access to licensed spectrum, under the condition that the interference perceived by the licensed users is minimal. New communication and networking(More)
Routing protocol is taking a vital role in the modern communication networks. A routing protocol is a protocol which is responsible to determine how routers communicate with each other and forward the packets through the optimal path to travel from a source node to a destination node. Among the routing protocols, Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol(More)
In cognitive radio networks, unlicensed users need to learn from environmental changes. This is a process that can be done in a cooperative or non-cooperative manner. Due to the competition for channel utilization among unlicensed users, the non-cooperative approach may lead to overcrowding in the available channels. This paper is about a fuzzy logic based(More)
WiMAX is introduced by the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) which is standard designated 802.16d-2004 (used in fixed wireless applications) and 802.16e-2005 (mobile wireless) to provide a worldwide interoperability for microwave access. At present, telecommunication industries are highly concerned with the wireless transmission of(More)
The usage of Internet is rapidly increasing and a large part of the Internet traffic is generated by the World Wide Web (WWW) and the associated protocol HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP). Several important parameters that affect the performance of the WWW are bandwidth, scalability, and latency. To tackle these parameters and to improve the overall(More)
Over the last years, we have witnessed a rapid deployment of real-time applications on the Internet as well as many research works about Quality of Service (QoS), in particular IPv4 (Internet Protocol version 4). The inevitable exhaustion of the remaining IPv4 address pool has become progressively evident. As the evolution of Internet Protocol (IP)(More)