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This study addresses the question as to the nature of the information on which the preactivation of the appropriate muscles in the grasping of the ball in a one-handed catching task is initiated and coordinated. High speed film and electromyograms were recorded while experiences subjects (N = 4) caught balls--projected towards them by a ball-machine at(More)
Electromyograms (EMGs) need to be normalized if comparisons are sought between trials when electrodes are reapplied, as well as between different muscles and individuals. The methods used to normalize EMGs recorded from healthy individuals have been appraised for more than a quarter of a century. Eight methods were identified and reviewed based on criteria(More)
The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare four different methods of normalising the amplitude of electromyograms (EMGs), from the biceps brachii. Five males performed isotonic contractions of the elbow flexors with an external force of 50 N, 100 N, 150 N and 200 N. These were followed by a single isometric maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and(More)
The impact of using different resistance training (RT) kinematics, which therefore alters RT mechanics, and their subsequent effect on adaptations remain largely unreported. The aim of this study was to identify the differences to training at a longer (LR) compared with a shorter (SR) range of motion (ROM) and the time course of any changes during(More)
The purpose of this study was to compare four different methods of normalising electromyograms (EMGs) recorded during normal gait. Comparisons were made between the amplitude, intra-individual variability and inter-individual variability of EMGs. Surface EMGs were recorded from the biceps femoris, semitendinosus, vastus lateralis and vastus medialis of ten(More)
The motion of the shoulders, arms and club during the golf swing has often been explained using the 'double pendulum' model. Despite subsequent explanations for the actions of the distal segments of the body, the coordination of more proximal segments during the swing is less well understood. To ascertain the pattern of centre of mass motion and hip and(More)
Many clinicians and employers utilise work-related assessment tools for the purposes of identifying whether or not the performance of a specific job exposes an individual to a heightened risk of developing a low back injury. However, research has shown that some of these tools have not been assessed for validity or reliability, and thus may not accurately(More)
Previous studies have compared muscle activity between different types of sit-ups and curl-ups. However, few have examined the exercises used by the armed forces or investigated the influence of exercise duration on muscle activation. The aim of this study was to compare abdominal and hip flexor muscle activity between the style of sit-up used by the(More)
Modulators of loading-induced in vivo adaptations in muscle-tendon complex (MTC) mechanical properties remain unclear. Similarly contentious, is whether changes in MTC characteristics are associated with growth factor levels. Four groups were subjected to varying magnitudes of stress/strain: Group 1 trained with the MTC at a shortened position (MTCS; n =(More)
Despite the importance of the Combined Event to the modern pentathlon competition, little is known about performance in the event. This study aimed to (i) identify the key variables affecting Combined Event shooting performance, and the extent to which these corresponded with those identified for precision shooting and (ii) investigate the impact of(More)