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This investigation was conducted to examine the various theories that have been proposed to explain the enhancement of jumping performance when using an arm swing compared to when no arm swing is used. Twenty adult males were asked to perform a series of maximal vertical jumps while using an arm swing and again while holding their arms by their sides.(More)
The effect of increased walking speed on temporal and loading asymmetry was investigated in highly active trans-femoral and trans-tibial amputees. With increasing walking speed, temporal gait variables reduced in duration, particularly on the prosthetic limb, while vertical ground reaction force (vGRF) increased in magnitude, particularly on the intact(More)
Most soccer players have a favoured foot for kicking the ball, and it is believed that this preference may lead to an asymmetry in the strength and flexibility of the lower extremities. This study was designed to determine whether asymmetry in strength and flexibility are present in the legs of soccer players.Forty-one elite and sub-elite soccer players(More)
This study was concerned with the measurement of a selection of performance variables from competitors in the women's long jump final of the World Student Games held in Sheffield, UK in July 1991. Several performances of each of six finalists were recorded on cine-film at 100 Hz. Resulting planar kinematic data were obtained for the last stride, touch-down(More)
The vertical jump is widely used as a field test of performance capability, particularly in games like soccer. Invariably some players perform better than others and, while this is usually put down to greater strength or 'explosive power', there is no detailed information to explain how the muscles around the major joints contribute to this performance and(More)
The vertical jump is a widely used activity to develop explosive strength, particularly in plyometric and maximal power training programs. It is a multijoint action that requires substantial muscular effort from primarily the ankle, knee, and hip joints. It is not known if submaximal performances of a vertical jump have a proportional or differential(More)
In this cross-sectional study, the differences in the isokinetic peak torque of the knee joint muscles (dominant and non-dominant) were investigated in three groups of youths (n=45; age, 14.9+/-1.1 years) with different soccer training backgrounds. Significant main effects were observed for training background on the functional hamstrings to quadriceps(More)
Self-organising artificial neural networks were used to reduce the complexity of joint kinematic and kinetic data, which form part of a typical instrumented gait assessment. Three-dimensional joint angles, moments and powers during the gait cycle were projected from the multi-dimensional data space onto a topological neural map, which thereby identified(More)
This paper critically reviews technique analysis as an analytical method used within sports biomechanics as a part of performance analysis. The concept of technique as 'a specific sequence of movements' appears to be well established in the literature, but the concept of technique analysis is less well developed. Although several descriptive and analytical(More)
The hypothesis of a 'movement pattern fixation' or 'movement stereotype' for running was tested by measuring four ground reaction force variables on three separate test sessions in a longitudinal study. Of the four variables chosen to investigate this hypothesis, two reflected the shock absorption characteristics of a runner plus footwear and two reflected(More)