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This investigation was conducted to examine the various theories that have been proposed to explain the enhancement of jumping performance when using an arm swing compared to when no arm swing is used. Twenty adult males were asked to perform a series of maximal vertical jumps while using an arm swing and again while holding their arms by their sides.(More)
This study was concerned with the measurement of a selection of performance variables from competitors in the women's long jump final of the World Student Games held in Sheffield, UK in July 1991. Several performances of each of six finalists were recorded on cine-film at 100 Hz. Resulting planar kinematic data were obtained for the last stride, touch-down(More)
Most soccer players have a favoured foot for kicking the ball, and it is believed that this preference may lead to an asymmetry in the strength and flexibility of the lower extremities. This study was designed to determine whether asymmetry in strength and flexibility are present in the legs of soccer players.Forty-one elite and sub-elite soccer players(More)
The vertical jump is widely used as a field test of performance capability, particularly in games like soccer. Invariably some players perform better than others and, while this is usually put down to greater strength or 'explosive power', there is no detailed information to explain how the muscles around the major joints contribute to this performance and(More)
Self-organising artificial neural networks were used to reduce the complexity of joint kinematic and kinetic data, which form part of a typical instrumented gait assessment. Three-dimensional joint angles, moments and powers during the gait cycle were projected from the multi-dimensional data space onto a topological neural map, which thereby identified(More)
The hypothesis of a 'movement pattern fixation' or 'movement stereotype' for running was tested by measuring four ground reaction force variables on three separate test sessions in a longitudinal study. Of the four variables chosen to investigate this hypothesis, two reflected the shock absorption characteristics of a runner plus footwear and two reflected(More)
The metatarsophalangeal joint (MPJ) is a significant absorber of energy in sprinting. This study examined the influence of MPJ axis choice and filter cut-off frequency on kinetic variables describing MPJ function during accelerated sprinting. Eight trained sprinters performed maximal sprints along a runway. Three-dimensional high-speed (1000 Hz) kinematic(More)
The effect of increased walking speed on temporal and loading asymmetry was investigated in highly active trans-femoral and trans-tibial amputees. With increasing walking speed, temporal gait variables reduced in duration, particularly on the prosthetic limb, while vertical ground reaction force (vGRF) increased in magnitude, particularly on the intact(More)
Surface electromyography has been useful in comparing muscular activity among different sports movements and it is a valuable technique for evaluating muscle activation, co-ordination and fatigue. Since these important variables have not been investigated during the full game in soccer, the present study aimed to investigate the activity of major muscles of(More)
The aim of this investigation was to determine the effect of even, negative and positive pacing on metabolic, kinematic and temporal variables during breaststroke swimming. Nine male swimmers [mean (SD): age 21 (3) years, height 178 (5) cm, body mass 77.2 (6.7) kg, 200 m-time 158.6 (13.6) s] completed a 200-m breaststroke time trial and then 72 h later(More)