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This review considers the biomechanical factors that are relevant to success in the game of soccer. Three broad areas are covered: (1) the technical performance of soccer skills; (2) the equipment used in playing the game; and (3) the causative mechanisms of specific soccer injuries. Kicking is the most widely studied soccer skill. Although there are many(More)
The vertical jump is widely used as a field test of performance capability, particularly in games like soccer. Invariably some players perform better than others and, while this is usually put down to greater strength or 'explosive power', there is no detailed information to explain how the muscles around the major joints contribute to this performance and(More)
This investigation was conducted to examine the various theories that have been proposed to explain the enhancement of jumping performance when using an arm swing compared to when no arm swing is used. Twenty adult males were asked to perform a series of maximal vertical jumps while using an arm swing and again while holding their arms by their sides.(More)
Most soccer players have a favoured foot for kicking the ball, and it is believed that this preference may lead to an asymmetry in the strength and flexibility of the lower extremities. This study was designed to determine whether asymmetry in strength and flexibility are present in the legs of soccer players.Forty-one elite and sub-elite soccer players(More)
The aim of this study was to investigate the current practice of complex training using a lower body combination of exercises. It was hypothesized that a bout of heavy resistance exercise (HRE), as typically used in complex training, would lead to enhanced performance (in the form of counter-movement [CMJ] and drop [DJ] jump height) and increased(More)
The effect of increased walking speed on temporal and loading asymmetry was investigated in highly active trans-femoral and trans-tibial amputees. With increasing walking speed, temporal gait variables reduced in duration, particularly on the prosthetic limb, while vertical ground reaction force (vGRF) increased in magnitude, particularly on the intact(More)
Biomechanists are able to offer a scientific service which aids the process of achieving improved sports performance. They are able to provide measurement tools to quantify key mechanical variables related to performance. Biomechanists use different methods to define these key variables, although there is no generally accepted approach on how this should be(More)
This paper critically reviews technique analysis as an analytical method used within sports biomechanics as a part of performance analysis. The concept of technique as 'a specific sequence of movements' appears to be well established in the literature, but the concept of technique analysis is less well developed. Although several descriptive and analytical(More)
There is some evidence to suggest that ability to develop force in skeletal muscle can be improved for a short period following repeated maximal strength exercise. Some studies have suggested the phenomenon known as post-activation potentiation (PAP) to explain this immediate response to such exercise. However, little is known about the physical and(More)
This study was concerned with the measurement of a selection of performance variables from competitors in the women's long jump final of the World Student Games held in Sheffield, UK in July 1991. Several performances of each of six finalists were recorded on cine-film at 100 Hz. Resulting planar kinematic data were obtained for the last stride, touch-down(More)