Adrian Jonathan Lapthorn

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The soluble glutathione transferases (GSTs, EC 2.5.1.18) are encoded by a large and diverse gene family in plants, which can be divided on the basis of sequence identity into the phi, tau, theta, zeta and lambda classes. The theta and zeta GSTs have counterparts in animals but the other classes are plant-specific and form the focus of this article. The(More)
The three-dimensional structure of human chorionic gonadotropin shows that each of its two different subunits has a similar topology, with three disulphide bonds forming a cystine knot. This same folding motif is found in some protein growth factors. The heterodimer is stabilized by a segment of the beta-subunit which wraps around the alpha-subunit and is(More)
Shikimate dehydrogenase catalyzes the fourth step of the shikimate pathway, the essential route for the biosynthesis of aromatic compounds in plants and microorganisms. Absent in metazoans, this pathway is an attractive target for nontoxic herbicides and drugs. Escherichia coli expresses two shikimate dehydrogenase paralogs, the NADP-specific AroE and a(More)
The LH/CG receptor (LH/CG-R) belongs to the family of glycoprotein hormone G protein-coupled receptors. The extracellular domain of LH/CG-R is associated with high ligand-binding affinity and contains leucine-rich repeats (LRRs). With the goal of identifying essential amino acid residues involved in ligand binding, we replaced several conserved ionizable(More)
Endoplasmic reticulum oxidoreductases (Eros) are essential for the formation of disulfide bonds. Understanding disulfide bond catalysis in mammals is important because of the involvement of protein misfolding in conditions such as diabetes, arthritis, cancer, and aging. Mammals express two related Ero proteins, Ero1alpha and Ero1beta. Ero1beta is(More)
The cis-trans isomerisation of maleylacetoacetate to fumarylacetoacetate is the penultimate step in the tyrosine/phenylalanine catabolic pathway and has recently been shown to be catalysed by glutathione S-transferase enzymes belonging to the zeta class. Given this primary metabolic role it is unsurprising that zeta class glutathione S-transferases are well(More)
The spectroscopic analysis of large biomolecules is important in applications such as biomedical diagnostics and pathogen detection, and spectroscopic techniques can detect such molecules at the nanogram level or lower. However, spectroscopic techniques have not been able to probe the structure of large biomolecules with similar levels of sensitivity. Here,(More)
Shikimate kinase, despite low sequence identity, has been shown to be structurally a member of the nucleoside monophosphate (NMP) kinase family, which includes adenylate kinase. In this paper we have explored the roles of residues in the P-loop of shikimate kinase, which forms the binding site for nucleotides and is one of the most conserved structural(More)
Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) from the phi (GSTF) and tau (GSTU) classes are unique to plants and play important roles in stress tolerance and secondary metabolism as well as catalyzing the detoxification of herbicides in crops and weeds. We have cloned and functionally characterized a group of GSTUs from wheat treated with fenchlorazole-ethyl, a(More)
BACKGROUND Protein-protein recognition is fundamental to most biological processes. The information we have so far on the interfaces between proteins comes largely from several protease-inhibitor and antigen-antibody complexes. Barnase, a bacterial ribonuclease, and barstar, its natural inhibitor, form a tight complex which provides a good model for the(More)