Adrian J. Mulholland

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We present an atomic-level description of the reaction chemistry of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction dominated by proton tunneling. By solving structures of reaction intermediates at near-atomic resolution, we have identified the reaction pathway for tryptamine oxidation by aromatic amine dehydrogenase. Combining experiment and computer simulation, we show(More)
Cytochrome P450 enzymes (P450s) are important in drug metabolism and have been linked to adverse drug reactions. P450s display broad substrate reactivity, and prediction of metabolites is complex. QM/MM studies of P450 reactivity have provided insight into important details of the reaction mechanisms and have the potential to make predictions of metabolite(More)
The cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes are important in many areas, including pharmaceutical development. Subtle changes in the electronic structure of the active species, Compound I, have been postulated previously to account partly for the experimentally observed differences in reactivity between isoforms. Current predictive models of CYP metabolism typically(More)
Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is an enzyme involved in drug metabolism that catalyzes the hydrolysis of epoxides to form their corresponding diols. sEH has a broad substrate range and shows high regio- and enantioselectivity for nucleophilic ring opening by Asp333. Epoxide hydrolases therefore have potential synthetic applications. We have used combined(More)
The emergence of a novel H7N9 avian influenza that infects humans is a serious cause for concern. Of the genome sequences of H7N9 neuraminidase available, one contains a substitution of arginine to lysine at position 292, suggesting a potential for reduced drug binding efficacy. We have performed molecular dynamics simulations of oseltamivir, zanamivir and(More)
Large-scale conformational change is a common feature in the catalytic cycles of enzymes. Many enzymes function as homodimers with active sites that contain elements from both chains. Symmetric and anti-symmetric cooperative motions in homodimers can potentially lead to correlated active site opening and/or closure, likely to be important for ligand binding(More)
Combined quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) modelling has the potential to answer fundamental questions about enzyme mechanisms and catalysis. Calculations using QM/MM methods can now predict barriers for enzyme-catalysed reactions with unprecedented, near chemical accuracy, i.e. to within 1 kcal/mol in the best cases. Quantitative predictions(More)
N-Acetylneuraminic acid lyase (NAL) is a Class I aldolase that catalyzes the reversible condensation of pyruvate with N-acetyl-d-mannosamine (ManNAc) to yield the sialic acid N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac). Aldolases are finding increasing use as biocatalysts for the stereospecific synthesis of complex molecules. Incomplete understanding of the mechanism(More)
QM/MM calculations provide a means for predicting the electronic structure of the metal center in metalloproteins. Two heme peroxidases, Cytochrome c Peroxidase (CcP) and Ascorbate Peroxidase (APX), have a structurally very similar active site, yet have active intermediates with very different electronic structures. We review our recent QM/MM calculations(More)
The polymixin colistin is a "last line" antibiotic against extensively-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Recently, the mcr-1 gene was identified as a plasmid-mediated resistance mechanism in human and animal Enterobacteriaceae, with a wide geographical distribution and many producer strains resistant to multiple other antibiotics. mcr-1 encodes a(More)