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Using targeted exome sequencing we identified mutations in NNT, an antioxidant defence gene, in patients with familial glucocorticoid deficiency. In mice with Nnt loss, higher levels of adrenocortical cell apoptosis and impaired glucocorticoid production were observed. NNT knockdown in a human adrenocortical cell line resulted in impaired redox potential(More)
DNA methylation is associated with the silencing of gene expression. The predominant mechanism involves the methylation of DNA and the subsequent recruitment of binding proteins that preferentially recognize methylated DNA. In turn, these proteins associate with histone deacetylase and chromatin remodelling complexes to cause the stabilization of condensed(More)
Ectopic secretion of ACTH, from sites such as small cell lung cancer (SCLC), results in severe Cushing's syndrome. ACTH is cleaved from POMC. The syndrome may occur when the highly tissue-specific promoter of the human POMC gene (POMC) is activated. The mechanism of activation is not fully understood. This promoter is embedded within a defined CpG island,(More)
Adverse events in pregnancy may 'programme' offspring for the later development of cardiovascular disease and hypertension. Previously, using a rodent model of programmed hypertension we have demonstrated the role of the renin-angiotensin system in this process. More recently we showed that a maternal low protein diet resulted in undermethylation of the(More)
Melanocortin receptor accessory proteins (MRAPs) modulate signaling of melanocortin receptors in vitro. To investigate the physiological role of brain-expressed melanocortin 2 receptor accessory protein 2 (MRAP2), we characterized mice with whole-body and brain-specific targeted deletion of Mrap2, both of which develop severe obesity at a young age. Mrap2(More)
Receptor desensitization provides a potential mechanism for the regulation of adrenocortical adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) responsiveness. Using the mouse adrenocortical Y1 cell line we demonstrate that ACTH effectively desensitizes the cAMP response of its own receptor, the melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R), in these cells with a maximal effect between 30 and 60(More)
OBJECTIVE Familial glucocorticoid deficiency (FGD) is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by isolated glucocorticoid deficiency with preserved mineralocorticoid secretion. Mutations in the ACTH receptor (MC2R) account for approximately 25% of all FGD cases, but since these are usually missense mutations, a degree of receptor function is(More)
Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. Lifelong environmental factors (eg, salt intake, obesity, alcohol) and genetic factors clearly contribute to the development of hypertension, but it has also been established that stress in utero may program the later development of the disease. This phenomenon, known as(More)
Difficulty in expressing the adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH) receptor (melanocortin 2 receptor; MC2R) after transfection of various MC2R expression vectors has been experienced by many researchers. Reproducible evidence for expression has been obtained only in the Y6/OS3 corticoadrenal cell lines or in cells expressing endogenous melanocortin receptors. In(More)
The type 1 (AT(1)) angiotensin receptor, which mediates the known physiological and pharmacological actions of angiotensin II, activates numerous intracellular signaling pathways and undergoes rapid internalization upon agonist binding. Morphological and biochemical studies have shown that agonist-induced endocytosis of the AT(1) receptor occurs via(More)