Adrian J Dunford

Learn More
We report the crystal structure of the FAD/NADPH-binding domain (FAD domain) of the biotechnologically important Bacillus megaterium flavocytochrome P450 BM3, the last domain of the enzyme to be structurally resolved. The structure was solved in both the absence and presence of the ligand NADP(+), identifying important protein interactions with the NADPH(More)
P450s (cytochrome P450 mono-oxygenases) are a superfamily of haem-containing mono-oxygenase enzymes that participate in a wide range of biochemical pathways in different organisms from all of the domains of life. To facilitate their activity, P450s require sequential delivery of two electrons passed from one or more redox partner enzymes. Although the P450(More)
The cytochromes P450 (P450s) are probably nature's most versatile enzymes in terms of both their vast substrate range and the diverse types of molecular transformations performed across the P450 enzyme superfamily. The P450s exquisitely perform highly specific oxidative chemistry, utilizing a sophisticated catalytic reaction mechanism. Recent studies have(More)
The human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis has made a dramatic resurgence in recent years. Drug resistant and multidrug resistant strains are prevalent, and novel antibiotic strategies are desperately needed to counter Mtb's global spread. The M. tuberculosis genome sequence revealed an unexpectedly high number of cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes (20), and(More)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) cytochrome P450 gene CYP121 is shown to be essential for viability of the bacterium in vitro by gene knock-out with complementation. Production of CYP121 protein in Mtb cells is demonstrated. Minimum inhibitory concentration values for azole drugs against Mtb H37Rv were determined, the rank order of which correlated well(More)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis FprA (flavoprotein reductase A) is an NAD(P)H- and FAD-binding reductase that is structurally/evolutionarily related to adrenodoxin reductase. Structural analysis implicates Arg(199) and Arg(200) in interactions with the NADP(H) 2'-phosphate group. R199A, R200A and R199A/R200A mutants were characterized to explore the roles of(More)
Multiple solution-state techniques have been employed in investigating the nature and control of electron transfer in the context of the proposed "domain shuffle hypothesis" for intraprotein electron transfer inferred from the crystal structure of the nitric oxide synthase reductase domain. NADPH analogues and fragments have been used to map those regions(More)
In rat neuronal nitric oxide synthase, Phe1395 is positioned over the FAD isoalloxazine ring. This is replaced by Trp676 in human cytochrome P450 reductase, a tryptophan in related diflavin reductases (e.g. methionine synthase reductase and novel reductase 1), and tyrosine in plant ferredoxin-NADP(+) reductase. Trp676 in human cytochrome P450 reductase is(More)
An extraordinary array of P450 (cytochrome P450) enzymes are encoded on the genome of the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and in related mycobacteria and actinobacteria. These include the first characterized sterol 14alpha-demethylase P450 (CYP51), a known target for azole and triazole drugs in yeasts and fungi. To date, only two Mtb P450s(More)
Bacillus megaterium P450 BM3 (BM3) is a P450/P450 reductase fusion enzyme, where the dimer is considered the active form in NADPH-dependent fatty acid hydroxylation. The BM3 W1046A mutant was generated, removing an aromatic "shield" from its FAD isoalloxazine ring. W1046A BM3 is a catalytically active NADH-dependent lauric acid hydroxylase, with product(More)