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The haemoglobinopathies are the commonest single-gene disorders known, almost certainly because of the protection they provide against malaria, as attested by a number of observations. The geographical distributions of malaria and haemoglobinopathies largely overlap, and microepidemiological surveys confirm the close relationship between them. For two of(More)
The frequency of alpha+-thalassaemia, but not other unlinked DNA polymorphisms, exhibits an altitude- and latitude-dependent correlation with malaria endemicity throughout Melanesia, supporting the hypothesis that protection against this parasitic disease is the major factor responsible for the high frequencies of haemoglobinopathies in many parts of the(More)
We have used a new method for binning minisatellite alleles (semi-automated allele aggregation) and report the extent of population diversity detectable by eleven minisatellite loci in 2,689 individuals from 19 human populations distributed widely throughout the world. Whereas population relationships are consistent with those found in other studies, our(More)
The relationship between inbreeding and both conception and foaling rates in Standardbred horses (trotters and pacers) was examined for 1194 breeding years. There was a statistically significant (P less than 0.05) trend for conception and foaling rates to decrease with increased inbreeding; however, this relationship accounted for less than 2 percent of the(More)
Geochemical data from ancient sedimentary successions provide evidence for the progressive evolution of Earth's atmosphere and oceans. Key stages in increasing oxygenation are postulated for the Palaeoproterozoic era (∼2.3 billion years ago, Gyr ago) and the late Proterozoic eon (about 0.8 Gyr ago), with the latter implicated in the subsequent metazoan(More)
The human alpha-globin complex contains several polymorphic restriction-enzyme sites (i.e., RFLPs) linked to form haplotypes and is flanked by two hypervariable VNTR loci, the 5' hypervariable region (HVR) and the more highly polymorphic 3'HVR. Using a combination of RFLP analysis and PCR, we have characterized the 5'HVR and 3'HVR alleles associated with(More)
A random sample of private small-animal practices in Alabama submitted sera from dogs with known tick contact. A total of 579 samples from the three geographic regions of the state were collected (58% of the targeted sample size). Sera were screened for antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi using an indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) test which had a(More)
Allelic sequence polymorphism at the beta-globin locus was investigated in a group of 36 Melanesians. A 3-kilobase fragment containing the gene and its flanking regions was sequenced in 60 normal (beta A) and 12 thalassemic (intron 1, position 5, G-->C) chromosomes. Haplotype relationships between linked polymorphisms were derived by allele-specific PCR(More)
Various processes (selection, mutation, migration and genetic drift) are known to determine the frequency of genetic disease in human populations, but so far it has proved almost impossible to decide to what extent each is responsible for the presence of a particular genetic disease. The techniques of gene and haplotype analysis offer new hope in addressing(More)
RFLP haplotypes at the alpha-globin gene complex have been examined in 190 individuals from the Niokolo Mandenka population of Senegal: haplotypes were assigned unambiguously for 210 chromosomes. The Mandenka share with other African populations a sample size-independent haplotype diversity that is much greater than that in any non-African population: the(More)