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The effects of the anion perchlorate (present extracellularly at 8 mM) were studied on functional skeletal muscle fibers from Rana pipiens, voltage-clamped in a Vaseline gap chamber. Established methods were used to monitor intramembranous charge movement and flux of Ca release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) during pulse depolarization. Saponin(More)
Determination of the calcium spark amplitude distribution is of critical importance for understanding the nature of elementary calcium release events in striated muscle. In the present study we show, on general theoretical grounds, that calcium sparks, as observed in confocal line scan images, should have a nonmodal, monotonic decreasing amplitude(More)
The complete DNA sequence of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome XI has been determined. In addition to a compact arrangement of potential protein coding sequences, the 666,448-base-pair sequence has revealed general chromosome patterns; in particular, alternating regional variations in average base composition correlate with variations in local(More)
A comparative analysis of catecholaminergic systems in the brain and spinal cord of vertebrates forces to reconsider several aspects of the organization of catecholamine systems. Evidence has been provided for the existence of extensive, putatively catecholaminergic cell groups in the spinal cord, the pretectum, the habenular region, and cortical and(More)
Because our knowledge of cholinergic systems in the brains of amphibians is limited, the present study aimed to provide detailed information on the distribution of cholinergic cell bodies and fibers as revealed by immunohistochemistry with antibodies directed against the enzyme choline acetyltransferase (ChAT). To determine general and derived features of(More)
The aim of the present study was to determine the origin of the catecholaminergic inputs to the telencephalic basal ganglia of amphibians. For that purpose, retrograde tracing techniques were combined with tyrosine hydroxylase immunohistochemistry in the anurans Xenopus laevis and Rana perezi and the urodele Pleurodeles waltl. In all three species studied,(More)
In skeletal and cardiac muscle, calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, leading to contraction, often results in calcium sparks. Because sparks are recorded by confocal microscopy in line-scanning mode, their measured amplitude depends on their true amplitude and the position of the spark relative to the scanned line. We present a method to derive(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the role of specific risk factors that may predispose preterm infants with mild or no initial respiratory distress syndrome to the development of chronic lung disease (CLD). STUDY DESIGN Clinical data were collected prospectively from 119 ventilator-supported preterm infants with birth weights between 500 and 1000 gm, who survived more(More)
Although the distribution of cholinergic cells is remarkably similar across the vertebrate species, no data are available on more primitive species, such as cartilaginous fishes. To extend the evolutionary analysis of the cholinergic systems, we studied the distribution of cholinergic neurons in the brain and rostral spinal cord of Scyliorhinus canicula by(More)
In October 1995, epidemic "hemorrhagic fever," without jaundice or renal manifestations, was reported in rural Nicaragua following heavy flooding; 2259 residents were evaluated for nonmalarial febrile illnesses (cumulative incidence, 6.1%) and 15 (0.7%) died with pulmonary hemorrhage. A case-control study found that case-patients were more likely than(More)