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The ventral premotor cortex (VPC) is involved in the transformation of sensory information into action, although the exact neuronal operation is not known. We addressed this problem by recording from single neurons in VPC while trained monkeys report a decision based on the comparison of two mechanical vibrations applied sequentially to the fingertips. Here(More)
The events linking sensory discrimination to motor action remain unclear. It is not known, for example, whether the motor areas of the frontal lobe receive the result of the discrimination process from other areas or whether they actively participate in it. To investigate this, we trained monkeys to discriminate between two mechanical vibrations applied(More)
Perceptual decisions arise from the activity of neurons distributed across brain circuits. But, decoding the mechanisms behind this cognitive operation across brain circuits has long posed a difficult problem. We recorded the neuronal activity of diverse cortical areas, while monkeys performed a vibrotactile discrimination task. We find that the encoding of(More)
We trained monkeys to compare the frequencies of two mechanical vibrations applied sequentially to the tip of a finger and to report which of the two stimuli had the higher frequency. This task requires remembering the first frequency during the delay period between the two stimuli. Recordings were made from neurons in the inferior convexity of the(More)
The ability to discriminate between two sequential stimuli requires evaluation of current sensory information in reference to stored information. Where and how does this evaluation occur? We trained monkeys to compare two mechanical vibrations applied sequentially to the fingertips and to report which of the two had the higher frequency. We recorded single(More)
During a sensory discrimination task, the responses of multiple sensory neurons must be combined to generate a choice. The optimal combination of responses is determined both by their dependence on the sensory stimulus and by their cofluctuations across trials-that is, the noise correlations. Positively correlated noise is considered deleterious, because it(More)
 We lesioned the right primary somatic sensory (SI) cortex in two monkeys trained to categorize the speed of moving tactile stimuli. Animals performed the task by pressing with the right hand one of two target switches to indicate whether the speed of a probe moving across the glabrous skin of the left hand was low or high. Sensory performance was evaluated(More)
BACKGROUND The benefits of intravenous tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) in acute ischemic stroke are time dependent, and guidelines recommend an arrival to treatment initiation (door-to-needle) time of ≤60 minutes. METHODS AND RESULTS Data from acute ischemic stroke patients treated with tPA within 3 hours of symptom onset in 1082 hospitals(More)
We sought to determine the neural code(s) for frequency discrimination of vibrotactile stimuli. We tested five possible candidate codes by analyzing the responses of single neurons recorded in primary somatosensory cortex of trained monkeys while they discriminated between two consecutive vibrotactile stimuli. Differences in the frequency of two stimuli(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Mild or rapidly improving stroke is a frequently cited reason for not giving intravenous recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rtPA), but some of these patients may have poor outcomes. We used data from a large nationwide study (Get With The Guidelines-Stroke) to determine risk factors for poor outcomes after mild or(More)