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Familial glucocorticoid deficiency (FGD), or hereditary unresponsiveness to adrenocorticotropin (ACTH; OMIM 202200), is an autosomal recessive disorder resulting from resistance to the action of ACTH on the adrenal cortex, which stimulates glucocorticoid production. Affected individuals are deficient in cortisol and, if untreated, are likely to succumb to(More)
The melanocortin receptor (MCR) family consists of 5 G protein-coupled receptors (MC1R-MC5R) with diverse physiologic roles. MC2R is a critical component of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, whereas MC3R and MC4R have an essential role in energy homeostasis. Mutations in MC4R are the single most common cause of monogenic obesity. Investigating the(More)
BACKGROUND The renin-angiotensin system is a powerful pressor system with a major influence on salt and water homeostasis. Angiotensinogen (also called renin substrate) is a key component of this system; it is cleaved by renin to yield angiotensin I, which is then cleaved by angiotensin-converting enzyme to yield angiotensin II. The observation that plasma(More)
The triple A syndrome (MIM 231550) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by adrenal insufficiency, achalasia and alacrima. The frequent association with a variety of neurological features may result in a severely disabling disease. We previously mapped the syndrome to a 6 cM interval on chromosome 12q13 and have now refined the critical(More)
Ectopic secretion of ACTH, from sites such as small cell lung cancer (SCLC), results in severe Cushing's syndrome. ACTH is cleaved from POMC. The syndrome may occur when the highly tissue-specific promoter of the human POMC gene (POMC) is activated. The mechanism of activation is not fully understood. This promoter is embedded within a defined CpG island,(More)
Laron syndrome (LS) is a severe autosomal recessive form of GH resistance resulting from molecular defects in the GH receptor (GHR). Affected individuals have extreme short stature and a typical facial phenotype. The point mutations in the GHR gene identified in this condition have until now been confined to the region encoding the extracellular domain of(More)
Familial glucocorticoid deficiency is an uncommon disorder that appears to be due to congenital insensitivity or resistance to adrenocorticotropin (ACTH), and is usually inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern. We investigated the DNA base sequence in a family with this condition by polymerase chain reaction amplification of DNA with pairs of primers(More)
Using targeted exome sequencing, we identified mutations in NNT, an antioxidant defense gene, in individuals with familial glucocorticoid deficiency. In mice with Nnt loss, higher levels of adrenocortical cell apoptosis and impaired glucocorticoid production were observed. NNT knockdown in a human adrenocortical cell line resulted in impaired redox(More)