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The sex pheromone of the pea midge consists of 2-acetoxytridecane, (2S,11S)-diacetoxytridecane and (2S,12S)-diacetoxytridecane. The responses of male pea midges to the corresponding stereoisomers of (2S,11S)-diacetoxytridecane and (2S,12S)-diacetoxytridecane were tested in field trapping experiments and by electroantennographic recordings. When added at 20%(More)
The majority of deaths from carcinoma are caused by secondary growths that result from tumour invasion and metastasis. The importance of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) as a driver of invasion and metastasis is increasingly recognised, and recent evidence has highlighted a link between EMT and the cancer stem cells that initiate and maintain(More)
BACKGROUND Subsets of cells with stem-like properties have been previously isolated from human epithelial cancers and their resistance to apoptosis-inducing stimuli has been related to carcinoma recurrence and treatment failure. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of resistance to apoptosis-inducing agents of cells with stem-like(More)
CD44 is commonly used as a cell surface marker of cancer stem-like cells in epithelial tumours, and we have previously demonstrated the existence of two different CD44(high) cancer stem-like cell populations in squamous cell carcinoma, one having undergone epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and the other maintaining an epithelial phenotype. Alternative(More)
The glycolytic response of hypoxic cells is primarily mediated by the hypoxia inducible factor alpha (HIF-1α) but even in the presence of abundant oxygen tumours typically show high rates of glycolysis. Higher levels of HIF-1α in tumours are associated with a poorer prognosis and up-regulation of markers of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) due to(More)
There is a significant amount of evidence to suggest that human tumors are driven and maintained by a sub-population of cells, known as cancer stem cells (CSC). In the case of head and neck cancer, such cells have been characterised by high expression levels of CD44 cell surface glycoprotein, while we have previously shown the presence of two diverse oral(More)
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) drive tumour spread and therapeutic resistance, and can undergo epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET) to switch between epithelial and post-EMT sub-populations. Examining oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), we now show that increased phenotypic plasticity, the ability to undergo(More)
This research examined effects of instruction upon acquisition of Piaget's concept of horizontality and determined sex differences related to this acquisition. Hypotheses tested were that there are no significant differences (a) in performance on perception and prediction tasks, (b) by sex in the ability to comprehend horizontality, (c) by sex in the stage(More)
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