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Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an important driver of tumor invasion and metastasis, which causes many cancer deaths. Cancer stem cells (CSC) that maintain and initiate tumors have also been implicated in invasion and metastasis, but whether EMT is an important contributor to CSC function is unclear. In this study, we investigated whether a(More)
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are usually cultured under normoxic conditions (21% oxygen). However, in vivo, the physiological "niches" for MSCs have a much lower oxygen tension. Because of their plasticity, stem cells are particularly sensitive to their environments, and oxygen tension is one developmentally important stimulus in stem cell biology and(More)
The majority of deaths from carcinoma are caused by secondary growths that result from tumour invasion and metastasis. The importance of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) as a driver of invasion and metastasis is increasingly recognised, and recent evidence has highlighted a link between EMT and the cancer stem cells that initiate and maintain(More)
PURPOSE The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and cyclin D1 are overexpressed in lung carcinogenesis. The rexinoid, bexarotene, represses cyclin D1 and EGFR expression in vitro. It was hypothesized that combining bexarotene with the EGFR inhibitor, erlotinib, would augment clinical activity. PATIENTS AND METHODS In vitro studies and a phase I(More)
BACKGROUND Subsets of cells with stem-like properties have been previously isolated from human epithelial cancers and their resistance to apoptosis-inducing stimuli has been related to carcinoma recurrence and treatment failure. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of resistance to apoptosis-inducing agents of cells with stem-like(More)
OBJECTIVES Hypoxia is an important factor in many aspects of stem-cell biology including their viability, proliferation, differentiation and migration. We evaluated whether low oxygen level (2%) affected human adipose tissue mesenchymal stem-cell (hAT-MSC) phenotype, population growth, viability, apoptosis, necrosis and their adipogenic and osteogenic(More)
CD44 is commonly used as a cell surface marker of cancer stem-like cells in epithelial tumours, and we have previously demonstrated the existence of two different CD44(high) cancer stem-like cell populations in squamous cell carcinoma, one having undergone epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and the other maintaining an epithelial phenotype. Alternative(More)
Human papillomaviruses (HPV) of genus Betapapillomavirus (betaPV) are associated with nonmelanoma skin cancer development in epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) and immunosuppressed patients. Epidemiological and molecular studies suggest a carcinogenic activity of betaPV during early stages of cancer development. Since viral oncoproteins delay and perturb(More)
The glycolytic response of hypoxic cells is primarily mediated by the hypoxia inducible factor alpha (HIF-1α) but even in the presence of abundant oxygen tumours typically show high rates of glycolysis. Higher levels of HIF-1α in tumours are associated with a poorer prognosis and up-regulation of markers of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) due to(More)
BACKGROUND We previously reported that all-trans-retinoic acid (RA) treatment can prevent in vitro transformation of immortalized human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells. METHODS To determine whether methylation inhibits RARbeta expression in HBE cells, we used sodium bisulfite sequencing to compare RARbeta P2 promoter methylation patterns in RA-sensitive(More)