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Biologists have treated the view that fundamental differences exist between running, flying and swimming as evident, because the forms of locomotion and the animals are so different: limbs and wings vs body undulations, neutrally buoyant vs weighted bodies, etc. Here we show that all forms of locomotion can be described by a single physics theory. The(More)
Here, we show that the most basic features of tree and forest architecture can be put on a unifying theoretical basis, which is provided by the constructal law. Key is the integrative approach to understanding the emergence of "designedness" in nature. Trees and forests are viewed as integral components (along with dendritic river basins, aerodynamic(More)
This paper outlines a new 4th-year undergraduate course on the generation of system configuration (geometry, architecture, and drawing) during the maximization of performance of flow systems. The configuration is free to morph. Real systems are destined to remain imperfect because of finiteness constraints. They are plagued by resistances to the flow of(More)
In the present study, we show that the fastest runners and swimmers are becoming not only faster but also heavier, taller and more slender. During the past century, the world record speeds for 100 m-freestyle and 100 m-dash have increased with body mass (M) raised to the power 1/6, in accordance with the constructal scaling of animal locomotion. The world(More)
SUMMARY The constructal law of generation of flow structure is used to predict the main features of global circulation and climate. The flow structure is the atmospheric and oceanic circulation. This feature is modelled as convection loops, and added to the earth model as a heat engine heated by the Sun and cooled by the background. It is shown that the(More)
Constructal theory is the view that (i) the generation of images of design (pattern, rhythm) in nature is a phenomenon of physics and (ii) this phenomenon is covered by a principle (the constructal law): 'for a finite-size flow system to persist in time (to live) it must evolve such that it provides greater and greater access to the currents that flow(More)
In this paper we develop an analytical and graphical formulation of the constructal law of maximization of flow access in systems with heat and fluid flow irreversibilities and freedom to change configuration. The flow system has global performance (e.g., minimization of global flow resistance) and global properties, or constraints (e.g., overall size, and(More)
Here we explain a much avoided phenomenon in the evolution of speed sports for men and women: The world records in running tend to be set by black athletes and in swimming by white athletes. We show that this phenomenon is predictable from physics. Locomotion is a 'falling-forward' cycle, in which body mass falls forward and then rises again. Mass that(More)
Here we show that the emergence of scaling laws in inanimate (geophysical) flow systems is analogous to the emergence of allometric laws in animate (biological) flow systems, and that features of evolutionary "design" in nature can be predicted based on a principle of physics (the constructal law): "For a finite-size flow system to persist in time (to live)(More)
Here we show that constructal-law physics unifies the design of animate and inanimate movement by requiring that larger bodies move farther, and their movement on the landscape last longer. The life span of mammals must scale as the body mass (M) raised to the power 1/4, and the distance traveled during the lifetime must increase with body size. The same(More)