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BACKGROUND In mice, the scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) is essential for the delivery of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol to the liver and steroidogenic organs. Paradoxically, elevated HDL cholesterol levels are associated with increased atherosclerosis in SR-BI-knockout mice. It is unclear what role SR-BI plays in human metabolism. (More)
BACKGROUND Prospective epidemiological studies have shown that low plasma levels of HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) are associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Despite nearly 40 years of research, however, it is unclear whether this also holds true for individuals with severely reduced levels of HDL-C due to mutations in the(More)
Disorders of Golgi homeostasis form an emerging group of genetic defects. The highly heterogeneous clinical spectrum is not explained by our current understanding of the underlying cell-biological processes in the Golgi. Therefore, uncovering genetic defects and annotating gene function are challenging. Exome sequencing in a family with three siblings(More)
Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDGs) form a genetically and clinically heterogeneous group of diseases with aberrant protein glycosylation as a hallmark. A subgroup of CDGs can be attributed to disturbed Golgi homeostasis. However, identification of pathogenic variants is seriously complicated by the large number of proteins involved. As part of a(More)
The scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SR-B1) is an important HDL receptor involved in cholesterol uptake and efflux, but its physiological role in human lipoprotein metabolism is not fully understood. Heterozygous carriers of the SR-B1(P297S) mutation are characterized by increased HDL cholesterol levels, impaired cholesterol efflux from macrophages and(More)
There is unequivocal evidence of an inverse association between plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentrations and the risk of cardiovascular disease, a finding that has led to the hypothesis that HDL protects from atherosclerosis. This review details the experimental evidence for this "HDL hypothesis". In vitro studies suggest that HDL(More)
Genome-wide association studies have identified GALNT2 as a candidate gene in lipid metabolism, but it is not known how the encoded enzyme ppGalNAc-T2, which contributes to the initiation of mucin-type O-linked glycosylation, mediates this effect. In two probands with elevated plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and reduced triglycerides, we(More)
LCAT plays a key role in the maturation of HDL, as evidenced by low HDL-cholesterol levels in carriers of deleterious mutations in LCAT. However, the role of LCAT in atherosclerosis is unclear. We set out to study this in a prospective study. Plasma LCAT levels, which strongly correlate with LCAT activity, were measured in baseline nonfasting samples of 933(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW To review studies on hereditary disorders of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) metabolism and studies on HDL genetics in mice, which have both provided valuable insight into the pathways of this intriguing lipoprotein and moreover revealed targets to raise HDLc to reduce atherosclerosis. RECENT FINDINGS To date, as many as 11 genes are(More)
BACKGROUND Apolipoprotein M (apoM) has been identified as a specific sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) binding protein of HDL. OBJECTIVES AND METHODS To investigate the in vivo effects of disturbed apoM or HDL metabolism we quantified S1P and apoM in plasmas of wild-type, apoM-knock-out, and apoM transgenic mice as well as 50 patients with seven different(More)