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This paper attempts to interpret the observed changes in reproductive strategy of female North Sea plaice since 1900 in the light of possible genetical selection exerted by the fisheries. Somatic growth of juvenile plaice increased between the 1950s and the 1980s, probably as a response to an increase in food availability. Adult growth rate was constant,(More)
POLICYFORUM D arwinian evolution is the driving process of innovation and adaptation across the world's biota. Acting on top of natural selection, human-induced selection pressures can also cause rapid evolution. Sometimes such evolution has undesirable consequences, one example being the spreading resistance to antibiotics and pesticides, which causes(More)
The phylogeography of thornback rays (Raja clavata) was assessed from European waters, using five nuclear microsatellite loci and mitochondrial cytochome b sequences. Strong regional differentiation was found between the Mediterranean basin, the Azores and the European continental shelf. Allelic and haplotype diversities were high in Portuguese populations,(More)
Philopatry to spawning grounds combined with well-known migratory patterns in the flatfish Pleuronectes platessa (plaice) has led to the hypothesis that regional populations may reflect relatively discrete, genetic stocks. Using six microsatellite loci we genotyped 240 adult individuals collected from locations in Norway, the Faeroe plateau, the Irish Sea,(More)
Rays and skates are an unavoidable part of the by-catch in demersal fisheries. Over the past 40 years, the thornback ray (Raja clavata) has decreased in numbers and even disappeared in some areas, leading to concerns about genetic risk. For this reason, the effective population size (N(e)), the migration rate (m) and temporal changes in the genetic(More)
Skates (Rajidae) are characterized by slow growth rate, low fecundity, and late maturity and are thus considered to be vulnerable to exploitation. Although understanding mating systems and behavior are important for long-term conservation and fisheries management, this aspect of life history is poorly understood in skates. Using 5 highly polymorphic(More)
Data in the literature that in the Netherlands Carabus problematicus is an autumn breeder with overwintering larvae and adults have been confirmed. Pitfall catches show two peaks of adult beetles. The first small peak of activity is realized in May, the significance of which is not yet understood. The second higher peak occurs from the end of August till(More)
Overexploitation and subsequent collapses of major worldwide fisheries has made it clear that marine stocks are no inexhaustible. Unfortunately, the perception remains that marine fished are resilient to large population reductions, as even a commercially 'collapsed' stock will still consist of millions of individuals. Coupled with this notion is the idea(More)
1. In an attempt to evaluate the importance of individual daily habits to a freeliving animal, foraging behaviour of kestrels was observed continuously for days in sequence in open country. Data obtained in 2,942 observation hours were used. Flight-hunting was the prominent foraging technique yielding 76% of all prey obtained. 2. Flight-hunting was impeded(More)