Adolfo García-Sastre

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The 1918 influenza pandemic was a catastrophic series of virus outbreaks that spread across the globe. Here, we show that only a modest change in the 1918 influenza hemagglutinin receptor binding site alters the transmissibility of this pandemic virus. Two amino acid mutations that cause a switch in receptor binding preference from the human alpha-2,6 to(More)
Although highly effective in the general population when well matched to circulating influenza virus strains, current influenza vaccines are limited in their utility due to the narrow breadth of protection they provide. The strain specificity of vaccines presently in use mirrors the exquisite specificity of the neutralizing antibodies that they induce, that(More)
Influenza A virus is an RNA virus that encodes up to 11 proteins and this small coding capacity demands that the virus use the host cellular machinery for many aspects of its life cycle. Knowledge of these host cell requirements not only informs us of the molecular pathways exploited by the virus but also provides further targets that could be pursued for(More)
The influenza pandemic of 1918-19 was responsible for about 50 million deaths worldwide. Modern histopathological analysis of autopsy samples from human influenza cases from 1918 revealed significant damage to the lungs with acute, focal bronchitis and alveolitis associated with massive pulmonary oedema, haemorrhage and rapid destruction of the respiratory(More)
IKKepsilon is an IKK (inhibitor of nuclear factor kappaBkinase)-related kinase implicated in virus induction of interferon-beta (IFNbeta). We report that, although mice lacking IKKepsilon produce normal amounts of IFNbeta, they are hypersusceptible to viral infection because of a defect in the IFN signaling pathway. Specifically, a subset of type I(More)
Epidemiological studies indicate that maternal influenza viral infection increases the risk for schizophrenia in the adult offspring. The serotonin and glutamate systems are suspected in the etiology of schizophrenia, as well as in the mechanism of action of antipsychotic drugs. The effects of hallucinogens, such as psilocybin and mescaline, require the(More)
BACKGROUND The recent emergence of the 2009 pandemic influenza A/H1N1 virus has highlighted the value of free and open access to influenza virus genome sequence data integrated with information about other important virus characteristics. DESIGN The Influenza Research Database (IRD, http://www.fludb.org) is a free, open, publicly-accessible resource(More)
Without baseline human immunity to the emergent avian influenza A(H7N9) virus, neuraminidase inhibitors are vital for controlling viral replication in severe infections. An amino acid change in the viral neuraminidase associated with drug resistance, NA-R292K (N2 numbering), has been found in some H7N9 clinical isolates. Here we assess the impact of the(More)
Influenza viruses are globally important human respiratory pathogens. These viruses cause seasonal epidemics and occasional worldwide pandemics, both of which can vary significantly in disease severity. The virulence of a particular influenza virus strain is partly determined by its success in circumventing the host immune response. This article briefly(More)
Virus recognition and induction of interferon (IFN) are critical components of the innate immune system. The Toll-like receptor (TLR) and RIG-I-like receptor families have been characterized as key players in RNA virus detection. Signaling cascades initiated by these receptors are crucial for establishment of an IFN signaling mediated antiviral state in(More)