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The 1918 influenza pandemic was a catastrophic series of virus outbreaks that spread across the globe. Here, we show that only a modest change in the 1918 influenza hemagglutinin receptor binding site alters the transmissibility of this pandemic virus. Two amino acid mutations that cause a switch in receptor binding preference from the human alpha-2,6 to(More)
Despite accumulating evidence suggesting local self-maintenance of tissue macrophages in the steady state, the dogma remains that tissue macrophages derive from monocytes. Using parabiosis and fate-mapping approaches, we confirmed that monocytes do not show significant contribution to tissue macrophages in the steady state. Similarly, we found that after(More)
The ubiquitin ligase TRIM25 mediates Lysine 63-linked ubiquitination of the N-terminal CARD domains of the viral RNA sensor RIG-I to facilitate type I interferon (IFN) production and antiviral immunity. Here, we report that the influenza A virus nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) specifically inhibits TRIM25-mediated RIG-I CARD ubiquitination, thereby(More)
The NS1 protein of influenza A virus contributes to viral pathogenesis, primarily by enabling the virus to disarm the host cell type IFN defense system. We examined the downstream effects of NS1 protein expression during influenza A virus infection on global cellular mRNA levels by measuring expression of over 13,000 cellular genes in response to infection(More)
Although highly effective in the general population when well matched to circulating influenza virus strains, current influenza vaccines are limited in their utility due to the narrow breadth of protection they provide. The strain specificity of vaccines presently in use mirrors the exquisite specificity of the neutralizing antibodies that they induce, that(More)
Previously we found that the amino-terminal region of the NS1 protein of influenza A virus plays a key role in preventing the induction of beta interferon (IFN-beta) in virus-infected cells. This region is characterized by its ability to bind to different RNA species, including double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), a known potent inducer of IFNs. In order to(More)
The NS1 protein is the only nonstructural protein encoded by influenza A virus. It has been proposed that the NS1 performs several regulatory functions during the viral replication cycle, including the regulation of synthesis, transport, splicing, and translation of mRNAs. Through the use of reverse genetics, a viable transfectant influenza A virus (delNS1)(More)
An assay has been developed that allows the identification of molecules that function as type I IFN antagonists. Using this assay, we have identified an Ebola virus-encoded inhibitor of the type I IFN response, the Ebola virus VP35 protein. The assay relies on the properties of an influenza virus mutant, influenza delNS1 virus, which lacks the NS1 ORF and,(More)
Influenza A virus is an RNA virus that encodes up to 11 proteins and this small coding capacity demands that the virus use the host cellular machinery for many aspects of its life cycle. Knowledge of these host cell requirements not only informs us of the molecular pathways exploited by the virus but also provides further targets that could be pursued for(More)
The retinoic acid-inducible gene I product (RIG-I) has been identified as a cellular sensor of RNA virus infection resulting in beta interferon (IFN-beta) induction. However, many viruses are known to encode viral products that inhibit IFN-beta production. In the case of influenza A virus, the viral nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) prevents the induction of(More)