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Two interspersed and differently colored sets of dots were rotated in opposite directions and were perceived as superimposed transparent surfaces. Probes consisting of brief changes in dot motion direction were reported. Two probes affecting the same surface were discriminated accurately. The 2nd probe was discriminated poorly if it affected a surface(More)
The difficulty in processing two stimuli at once increases with their separation. Therefore to demonstrate constraints in dividing attention between objects, the effects of their spatial separation must be controlled. Duncan used superimposed objects to achieve this, and showed that judging two attributes is more accurate if they concern one object than if(More)
We describe a closed-loop control system ensuring full penetration in welding by controlling the focus position and power of a 4-kW Nd:YAG laser. A focus position monitoring system was developed based on the chromatic aberration of the focusing optics. With the laser power control system we can determine the degree of penetration by analyzing the keyhole(More)
Optical techniques for real-time full-penetration monitoring for Nd:YAG laser welding have been investigated. Coaxial light emission from the keyhole is imaged onto three photodiodes and a camera. We describe the spectral and statistical analyses from photodiode signals, which indicate the presence of a full penetration. Two image processing techniques(More)
A new spectral processing technique designed for application in the on-line detection and classification of arc-welding defects is presented in this paper. A noninvasive fiber sensor embedded within a TIG torch collects the plasma radiation originated during the welding process. The spectral information is then processed in two consecutive stages. A(More)
A new plasma spectroscopy analysis technique based on the generation of synthetic spectra by means of optimization processes is presented in this paper. The technique has been developed for its application in arc-welding quality assurance. The new approach has been checked through several experimental tests, yielding results in reasonably good agreement(More)
Plasma optical spectroscopy is widely employed in on-line welding diagnostics. The determination of the plasma electron temperature, which is typically selected as the output monitoring parameter, implies the identification of the atomic emission lines. As a consequence, additional processing stages are required with a direct impact on the real time(More)
A new fiber sensor system designed for spectroscopic analysis and on-line quality assurance of arc-welding processes is presented here. Although several different approaches have been considered for the optical capture of plasma emission in arc-welding processes, they tend to be invasive and make use of optical devices such as collimators or photodiodes.(More)
A new spectroscopic parameter is used in this paper for on-line arc-welding quality monitoring. Plasma spectroscopy applied to welding diagnostics has typically relied on the estimation of the plasma electronic temperature, as there is a known correlation between this parameter and the quality of the seams. However, the practical use of this parameter gives(More)
Samples of the recent results of the Photonic Engineering Group of the University of Cantabria (PEG-UC) are reported. They are obtained in several of the ongoing R&D lines: on Bragg grating technology; on infrared thermography; on optoelectronic instrumentation and signal processing for quality welding monitoring; on fiber devices and sensors and, materials(More)