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PURPOSE The sigma-1 receptor belongs to a recently discovered family of transmembrane proteins expressed in the central nervous system, including the eye, and mediates the regulation of ion channels. The exact function of sigma receptors remains to be elucidated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of sigma-1 receptor ligands on calcium(More)
Sigma-1 receptor (σ-1) activation and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) have been shown to protect retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) from cell death. The purpose of this study was to determine if σ-1 receptor stimulation with pentazocine could promote neuroprotection under conditions of an ischemia-like insult (oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD)) through(More)
Endothelin-1 (ET-1), a potent vasoconstrictor, lowers intraocular pressure in mammals, either by enhancing the outflow of aqueous humor (AH) via the trabecular meshwork and Schlemm's canal or by reducing AH formation at the ciliary epithelium. Aqueous humor production occurs by passive diffusion of water coupled with active transport of ions, mainly(More)
PURPOSE Changes in the expression of water channels or aquaporins (AQP) have been reported in several diseases. However, such changes and mechanisms remain to be evaluated for retinal injury. This study was designed to analyze changes in the expression of AQP4 following elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP) and after intravitreal endothelin-1 injection(More)
Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a potent mitogen for many cells, especially when its levels are elevated under pathological conditions, as seen in tumor cell progression and astroglial activation in neuropathies. While ET-1 is known to cause astroglial proliferation, in the present study, multiple signaling pathways involved in ET-1-mediated astrocyte proliferation(More)
The water channel, Aquaporin-9 (AQP9) is enriched in selected neuronal populations and is unique its ability to act as a lactate-glycerol channel supplying neurons with alternative fuel under ischaemic conditions. AQP9 was detected in RGC-5 cells, a retinal ganglion cell-line, primary RGCs, and retina by Western blotting, real-time PCR (RT-PCR) and(More)
Previously, we have shown that tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), a proinflammatory cytokine, increases the synthesis and release of endothelin-1 (ET-1), a potent vasoactive peptide from human non-pigmented ciliary epithelial (HNPE) cells, in a protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent manner. Diacylglycerol (DAG) and intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) are well(More)
Analysis of the signal transduction cascade of vasopressin-induced increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in LLC-PK1 cells was performed. First, a comparison of the effect of vasopressin on [Ca2+]i in LLC-PK1 cells with that produced in rat hepatocytes was performed [an intracellular mobilizing mechanism involving a V1 receptor coupled to(More)
PURPOSE Changes in the expression of water channels (aquaporins; AQP) have been reported in several diseases. However, such changes and mechanisms remain to be evaluated for retinal injury after optic nerve crush (ONC). This study was designed to analyze changes in the expression of AQP4 (water selective channel) and AQP9 (water and lactate channel)(More)
In the current study, a novel role for the microfilaments in vasopressin-induced water transport in toad urinary bladders, a popular model for the mammalian collecting duct, was established. Vasopressin-induced water transport was not affected by cytochalasin D (CD, 20 microM) or latrunculin B (Lat B, 0.5-2 microM), microfilament-disrupting reagents,(More)