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PURPOSE The sigma-1 receptor belongs to a recently discovered family of transmembrane proteins expressed in the central nervous system, including the eye, and mediates the regulation of ion channels. The exact function of sigma receptors remains to be elucidated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of sigma-1 receptor ligands on calcium(More)
Endothelin-1 (ET-1), a potent vasoconstrictor, lowers intraocular pressure in mammals, either by enhancing the outflow of aqueous humor (AH) via the trabecular meshwork and Schlemm's canal or by reducing AH formation at the ciliary epithelium. Aqueous humor production occurs by passive diffusion of water coupled with active transport of ions, mainly(More)
Sigma-1 receptor (σ-1) activation and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) have been shown to protect retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) from cell death. The purpose of this study was to determine if σ-1 receptor stimulation with pentazocine could promote neuroprotection under conditions of an ischemia-like insult (oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD)) through(More)
In the current study, a novel role for the microfilaments in vasopressin-induced water transport in toad urinary bladders, a popular model for the mammalian collecting duct, was established. Vasopressin-induced water transport was not affected by cytochalasin D (CD, 20 microM) or latrunculin B (Lat B, 0.5-2 microM), microfilament-disrupting reagents,(More)
PURPOSE To determine the cholinergic (carbachol, CCH) and adrenergic (norepinephrine, NE) modulation of Ca2+ response to endothelin-1 in human ciliary smooth muscle (HCSM) cells. METHODS Intracellular calcium levels were measured using the Fura-2 calcium imaging system in HCSM cells treated either singly with endothelin-1 (ET-1; 2-200 nM), CCH (1-100(More)
Phenylarsine oxide (PAO), a sulfhydryl modifying reagent and a widely used inhibitor for tyrosine phosphatases and endocytosis, was tested on the level of phosphorylation in human nonpigmented ciliary epithelial ocular (HNPE) cells. Pretreatment with (PAO, 10 microM) for 30 min followed by incubation with 32Pi to stimulate endogenous phosphorylation(More)
Endothelins (ET) are potent vasoactive peptides present in many ocular structures and are formed from precursor Big endothelins (Big ET-1) by the action of an endothelin-converting enzyme (ECE). ET-1 is thought to decrease intraocular pressure by contracting the ciliary muscle thus enhancing the outflow of aqueous humor through the Canal of Schlemm and(More)
Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a potent mitogen for many cells, especially when its levels are elevated under pathological conditions, as seen in tumor cell progression and astroglial activation in neuropathies. While ET-1 is known to cause astroglial proliferation, in the present study, multiple signaling pathways involved in ET-1-mediated astrocyte proliferation(More)
The water channel, Aquaporin-9 (AQP9) is enriched in selected neuronal populations and is unique its ability to act as a lactate-glycerol channel supplying neurons with alternative fuel under ischaemic conditions. AQP9 was detected in RGC-5 cells, a retinal ganglion cell-line, primary RGCs, and retina by Western blotting, real-time PCR (RT-PCR) and(More)
PURPOSE Changes in the expression of water channels or aquaporins (AQP) have been reported in several diseases. However, such changes and mechanisms remain to be evaluated for retinal injury. This study was designed to analyze changes in the expression of AQP4 following elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP) and after intravitreal endothelin-1 injection(More)