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BACKGROUND Although cell therapy is a promising approach after cerebral cortex lesion, few studies assess quantitatively its behavioral gain in nonhuman primates. Furthermore, implantations of fetal grafts of exogenous stem cells are limited by safety and ethical issues. OBJECTIVE To test in nonhuman primates the transplantation of autologous adult neural(More)
The corticospinal (CS) tract is the anatomical support of the exquisite motor ability to skillfully manipulate small objects, a prerogative mainly of primates(1). In case of lesion affecting the CS projection system at its origin (lesion of motor cortical areas) or along its trajectory (cervical cord lesion), there is a dramatic loss of manual dexterity(More)
Manual dexterity, a prerogative of primates, is under the control of the corticospinal (CS) tract. Because 90-95% of CS axons decussate, it is assumed that this control is exerted essentially on the contralateral hand. Consistently, unilateral lesion of the hand representation in the motor cortex is followed by a complete loss of dexterity of the(More)
The nonhuman primate model is suitable to study mechanisms of functional recovery following lesion of the cerebral cortex (motor cortex), on which therapeutic strategies can be tested. To interpret behavioral data (time course and extent of functional recovery), it is crucial to monitor the properties of the experimental cortical lesion, induced by infusion(More)
Although the arrangement of the corticospinal projection in primates is consistent with a more prominent role of the ipsilateral motor cortex on proximal muscles, rather than on distal muscles involved in manual dexterity, the role played by the primary motor cortex on the control of manual dexterity for the ipsilateral hand remains a matter a debate,(More)
In relation to mechanisms involved in functional recovery of manual dexterity from cervical cord injury or from motor cortical injury, our goal was to determine whether the movements that characterize post-lesion functional recovery are comparable to original movement patterns or do monkeys adopt distinct strategies to compensate the deficits depending on(More)
PURPOSE How are motor maps modified within and in the immediate vicinity of a damaged zone in the motor cortex of non-human primates? METHODS In eight adult macaque monkeys subjected to a restricted chemical lesion of the hand area in the primary motor cortex (M1), motor maps were established using intracortical micro-stimulation (ICMS) techniques. The(More)
The primary motor cortex (M1) plays an essential role in the control of hand movements in primates and is part of a complex cortical sensorimotor network involving multiple premotor and parietal areas. In a previous study in squirrel monkeys, we found that the ventral premotor cortex (PMv) projected mainly to 3 regions within the M1 forearm representation(More)
38 Manual dexterity, a prerogative of primates, is under the control of the corticospinal (CS) 39 tract. As 90-95% of CS axons decussate, it is assumed that this control is exerted essentially 40 on the contralateral hand. Consistently, unilateral lesion of the hand representation in the 41 motor cortex is followed by a complete loss of dexterity of the(More)
In primates, the refinement of motor behaviors, in particular hand use, is associated with the establishment of more direct projections from primary motor cortex (M1) onto cervical motoneurons [1, 2] and the appearance of additional premotor and sensory cortical areas [3]. All of these areas have reciprocal connections with M1 [4-7]. Thus, during the(More)