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The khmer package is a freely available software library for working efficiently with fixed length DNA words, or k-mers. khmer provides implementations of a probabilistic k-mer counting data structure, a compressible De Bruijn graph representation, De Bruijn graph partitioning, and digital normalization. khmer is implemented in C++ and Python, and is freely(More)
Interferon-beta (IFN-beta), an approved treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS), produces only partial clinical responses. IFN-beta therapy has been limited by its short serum half-life and limited ability to cross the blood brain barrier. We have developed a means of delivering the IFN-beta gene both systemically and into the central nervous system (CNS)(More)
Bone loss and pathological fractures are common skeletal complications associated with androgen deprivation therapy and bone metastases in prostate cancer patients. We have previously demonstrated that prostate cancer cells secrete receptor activator of NF-kB ligand (RANKL), a protein essential for osteoclast differentiation and activation. However, the(More)
We investigate the sequence and structural properties of RNA--protein interaction sites in 211 RNA--protein chain pairs, the largest set of RNA--protein complexes analyzed to date. Statistical analysis confirms and extends earlier analyses made on smaller data sets. There are 24.6% of hydrogen bonds between RNA and protein that are nucleobase specific,(More)
Identifying functionally critical regions of the malaria antigen AMA1 (apical membrane antigen 1) is necessary to understand the significance of the polymorphisms within this antigen for vaccine development. The crystal structure of AMA1 in complex with the Fab fragment of inhibitory monoclonal antibody 1F9 reveals that 1F9 binds to the AMA1 solvent-exposed(More)
Clec16a has been identified as a disease susceptibility gene for type 1 diabetes, multiple sclerosis, and adrenal dysfunction, but its function is unknown. Here we report that Clec16a is a membrane-associated endosomal protein that interacts with E3 ubiquitin ligase Nrdp1. Loss of Clec16a leads to an increase in the Nrdp1 target Parkin, a master regulator(More)
Osteopontin and MMP9 are implicated in angiogenesis and cancer progression. The objective of this study is to gain insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying angiogenesis, and to elucidate the role of osteopontin in this process. We report here that osteopontin/αvβ3 signaling pathway which involves ERK1/2 phosphorylation regulates the expression of(More)
OBJECTIVE Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and their subsequent meta-analyses have changed the landscape of genetics in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by uncovering several novel genes. Such studies are heavily weighted by samples from Caucasian populations, but they explain only a small proportion of total heritability. Our previous studies in genetically(More)
Epistatic interactions between residues determine a protein's adaptability and shape its evolutionary trajectory. When a protein experiences a changed environment, it is under strong selection to find a peak in the new fitness landscape. It has been shown that strong selection increases epistatic interactions as well as the ruggedness of the fitness(More)
Cell surface interaction of CD44 and MMP9 increases migration and invasion of PC3 cells. We show here that stable knockdown of MMP9 in PC3 cells switches CD44 isoform expression from CD44s to CD44v6 which is more glycosylated. These cells showed highly adhesive morphology with extensive cell spreading which is due to the formation of focal adhesions and(More)