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Spinal cord injury results in a massive loss of neurons, and thus of function. We recently reported that passive transfer of autoimmune T cells directed against myelin-associated antigens provides acutely damaged spinal cords with effective neuroprotection. The therapeutic time window for the passive transfer of T cells was found to be at least 1 week. Here(More)
Ionotropic glutamate receptors of the kainate and AMPA subtypes share a number of structural features, both topographical and in terms of stoichiometry. In addition, AMPA and kainate receptors share similar pharmacological and biophysical properties in that they are activated by common agonists and display rapid activation and desensitization(More)
Primary damage caused by injury to the CNS is often followed by delayed degeneration of initially spared neurons. Studies in our laboratory have shown that active or passive immunization with CNS myelin-associated self-antigens can reduce this secondary loss. Here we show, using four experimental paradigms in rodents, that CNS trauma spontaneously evokes a(More)
The results of this study attribute to tumor necrosis factor (TNF) a role in regeneration of injured mammalian central nervous system (CNS) axons which grow into their own degenerating environment. This is the first time that a specific factor involved in axonal regeneration has been identified. The axonal environment is occupied mostly by glia cells, i.e.,(More)
Fish optic nerves, unlike mammalian optic nerves, are endowed with a high capacity to regenerate. Injury to fish optic nerves causes pronounced changes in the composition of pulse-labeled substances derived from the surrounding non-neuronal cells. The most prominent of these injury-induced changes is in a 28-kilodalton (kDa) polypeptide whose level(More)
The principal objective of these studies was to microencapsulate brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and to test its biological effects in vitro. Two types of microspheres with BDNF were prepared using biodegradable polymers: chitosan and poly-(L-lactic acid):poly-(L-glycolic acid). Depending on the procedure, sizes ranged from 1 micron to 1 mm as(More)
Axons of the central nervous system in adult mammals do not regenerate spontaneously after injury, partly because of the presence of oligodendrocytes that inhibit axonal growth. This is not the case in lower vertebrates (e.g., in fish), where regeneration of the optic nerve does occur spontaneously and has been correlated with the presence of factors(More)
Mammalian central nervous system (CNS) axons are virtually incapable of regenerating after injury. However, CNS neurons of lower vertebrates, such as fish and amphibians, are endowed with a high regenerative capacity. Lately, the glial cells have been credited with the regenerative ability of any specific CNS. We have previously demonstrated that many(More)
Neurons in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS) have a poor capacity for regenerating their axons after injury. In contrast, neurons in the CNS of lower vertebrates and in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) of mammals are endowed with a high posttraumatic capacity to regenerate. The differences in regenerative capacity have been attributed to the(More)
Healthy persons manifest a high frequency of T cells reactive to epitopes of the self 60-kDa heat-shock protein (hsp60) molecule. It was reasoned that a self hsp60 peptide, p458m, might provide T cell help for a response to the T independent capsular polysaccharide of Streptococcus pneumoniae type 4 (PS4). The conjugate vaccine (PS4-p458m) induced(More)