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Resistance to the oxyanion arsenite in the parasite Leishmania is multifactorial. We have described previously the frequent amplification of the ABC transporter gene pgpA, the presence of a non-PgpA thiol-metal efflux pump and increased levels of glutathione and trypanothione in resistant cells. Other loci are also amplified, although their role in(More)
The mechanism of resistance to the metal arsenite has been studied and compared in L. mexicana, L. tropica, and L. tarentolae selected in a step by step manner for arsenite resistance. Amplification of the ABC transporter gene pgpA was found to be a frequent resistance mechanism in all species. Transfection of pgpA genes into different species indicated(More)
The Leishmania ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter PGPA is involved in metal resistance (arsenicals and antimony), although the exact mechanism by which PGPA confers resistance to antimony, the first line drug against Leishmania, is unknown. The results of co-transfection experiments, transport assays, and the use of inhibitors suggest that PGPA(More)
The levels of trypanothione, a glutathione-spermidine conjugate, are increased in the protozoan parasite Leishmania selected for resistance to the heavy metal arsenite. The levels of putrescine and spermidine were increased in resistant mutants. This increase is mediated by overexpression of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the rate-limiting enzyme in(More)
Leishmania tarentolae promastigotes were selected step by step for resistance to sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam). Mutants resistant to antimony-containing drugs and cross-resistant to arsenite were therefore obtained. Amplification of one common locus was observed in several independent sodium stibogluconate-resistant mutants, and the locus amplified was(More)
Dietary changes are a major factor in determining cardiovascular risk. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids modulate the risk factors for metabolic syndrome via multiple mechanisms, including the regulation of the lipid metabolism. We therefore investigated the effect of Odontella aurita, a microalga rich in EPA, which is already used as a food supplement, on(More)
The beneficial effect of polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acid (w-3 FA) consumption regarding cardiovascular diseases, insulin resistance and inflammation has been widely reported. Fish oil is considered as the main source of commercialized w-3 FAs, and other alternative sources have been reported such as linseed or microalgae. However, despite numerous(More)
Leishmania tarentolae cells selected for resistance to the oxyanions pentavalent or trivalent antimonials or to trivalent arsenicals exhibited cross-resistance to the other oxyanions. The basis for resistance in these mutants was studied by transport experiments using radioactive arsenite. All mutants exhibiting high level resistance to arsenite showed a(More)
ABC transporters have been found in several parasitic protozoa including Leishmania. At least two Leishmania ABC transporters are involved in drug resistance. One is PgpA, which is involved in resistance to arsenic and antimony-containing compounds. Antimonials are the drug of choice against Leishmania infections. Transfection and biochemical studies(More)