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The abilities of enzymes to catalyze reactions in nonnatural environments of organic solvents have opened new opportunities for enzyme-based industrial processes. However, the main drawback of such processes is that most enzymes have a limited stability in polar organic solvents. In this study, we employed protein engineering methods to generate a lipase(More)
To determine the safety, efficacy, and the ventilatory responses to carbon dioxide (CO2) of mini-dose intrathecal morphine, 33 healthy women who underwent cesarean section with spinal anesthesia using 0.75% bupivacaine in 8.25% dextrose were studied. Patients were randomly assigned to receive, in a double-blind fashion, either morphine 0.25 mg (group I, n =(More)
Oxygenases are ubiquitous enzymes that catalyze the introduction of one or two oxygen atoms to unreactive chemical compounds. They require reduction equivalents from NADH or NADPH and comprise metal ions, metal ion complexes, or coenzymes in their active site. Thus, for industrial purposes, oxygenases are most commonly employed using whole cell catalysis,(More)
Recently, it has been proposed that plants which have spines, thorns, and prickles use pathogenic aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, as well as pathogenic fungi, for defense against herbivores, especially vertebrates. Their sharp defensive appendages may inject various pathogenic agents into the body of the herbivores by piercing the outer defensive layer of(More)
Enzymatic production of biodiesel by transesterification of triglycerides and alcohol, catalyzed by lipases, offers an environmentally friendly and efficient alternative to the chemically catalyzed process while using low-grade feedstocks. Methanol is utilized frequently as the alcohol in the reaction due to its reactivity and low cost. However, one of the(More)
Scorpions exhibit some of the lowest recorded water loss rates among terrestrial arthropods. Evaporative water loss to the surrounding environment occurs mainly through the integument, and thus its resistance to water loss has paramount significance for the ability of scorpions to tolerate extremely dry habitats. Cuticular hydrocarbons (HCs) deposited on(More)
Two ternary sol-gel matrices, an octyltriethoxysilane-based aliphatic matrix and a phenyltriethoxysilane (PTEOS)-based aromatic matrix, were used to immobilize a methanol-stable variant of lipase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus T6 for the synthesis of biodiesel from waste oil. Superior thermal stability of the mutant versus the wildtype in methanol was(More)
Noncardiogenic pulmonary edema (capillary leak syndrome) developed in a 61-year-old woman after methylmethacrylate was inserted for total hip replacement. The diagnosis was based on the low pulmonary artery and pulmonary artery wedge pressures, low systemic vascular resistance, relative hypovolemia, and clear pulmonary edema. The diagnosis of capillary leak(More)
BACKGROUND The underlying mechanisms of adaptations to pain are unclear. In order to explore whether central or peripheral mechanisms predominate, the effects of two centrally mediated phenomena - spatial summation of pain (SSP) and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) - were examined. The effect of the degree of painfulness, rather than(More)
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