Adeline R. Whitney

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Many human pathogens produce phenotypic variants as a means to circumvent the host immune system and enhance survival and, as a potential consequence, exhibit increased virulence. For example, it has been known for almost 90 y that clinical isolates of the human bacterial pathogen group A streptococci (GAS) have extensive phenotypic heterogeneity linked to(More)
A Human neutrophils are an essential component of the innate immune response. Although significant progress has been made toward understanding mechanisms of phagocytosis and microbicidal activity, a comprehensive analysis of proteins comprising neutrophil phagosomes has not been conducted. To that end, we used subcellular proteomics to identify proteins(More)
BACKGROUND Myocardial failure has a central role in the complex pathophysiology of septic shock and contributes to organ failure and death. During the sepsis-induced inflammatory process, specific factors are released that depress myocardial contractile function. We aimed to identify these mediators of myocardial depression in meningococcal septic shock. (More)
It is becoming increasingly apparent that Staphylococcus aureus are able to survive engulfment by macrophages, and that the intracellular environment of these host cells, which is essential to innate host defenses against invading microorganisms, may in fact provide a refuge for staphylococcal survival and dissemination. Based on this, we postulated that S.(More)
Circumvention of the host innate immune response is critical for bacterial pathogens to infect and cause disease. Here we demonstrate that the group A Streptococcus (GAS; Streptococcus pyogenes) protease SpyCEP (S. pyogenes cell envelope protease) cleaves granulocyte chemotactic protein 2 (GCP-2) and growth-related oncogene alpha (GROalpha), two potent(More)
Staphylococcus epidermidis is a leading nosocomial pathogen. In contrast to its more aggressive relative S. aureus, it causes chronic rather than acute infections. In highly virulent S. aureus, phenol-soluble modulins (PSMs) contribute significantly to immune evasion and aggressive virulence by their strong ability to lyse human neutrophils. Members of the(More)
Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs or neutrophils) are the most prominent cellular component of the innate immune system in humans and produce an array of potent cytotoxic molecules. It is important that neutrophils undergo constitutive (spontaneous) apoptosis as a mechanism to facilitate normal cell turnover and immune system homeostasis. Conversely,(More)
Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of bloodstream infections worldwide. In the United States, many of these infections are caused by a strain known as USA300. Although progress has been made, our understanding of the S. aureus molecules that promote survival in human blood and ultimately facilitate metastases is incomplete. To that end, we analyzed(More)
Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) strains typically carry genes encoding Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL). We used wild-type parental and isogenic PVL-deletion (Delta pvl) strains of USA300 (LAC and SF8300) and USA400 (MW2) to test whether PVL alters global gene regulatory networks and contributes to pathogenesis of(More)
Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) is a threat to human health worldwide. Although progress has been made, mechanisms of CA-MRSA pathogenesis are poorly understood and a comprehensive analysis of CA-MRSA exoproteins has not been conducted. To address that deficiency, we used proteomics to identify exoproteins made by(More)