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Many human pathogens produce phenotypic variants as a means to circumvent the host immune system and enhance survival and, as a potential consequence, exhibit increased virulence. For example, it has been known for almost 90 y that clinical isolates of the human bacterial pathogen group A streptococci (GAS) have extensive phenotypic heterogeneity linked to(More)
A Human neutrophils are an essential component of the innate immune response. Although significant progress has been made toward understanding mechanisms of phagocytosis and microbicidal activity, a comprehensive analysis of proteins comprising neutrophil phagosomes has not been conducted. To that end, we used subcellular proteomics to identify proteins(More)
Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of bloodstream infections worldwide. In the United States, many of these infections are caused by a strain known as USA300. Although progress has been made, our understanding of the S. aureus molecules that promote survival in human blood and ultimately facilitate metastases is incomplete. To that end, we analyzed(More)
BACKGROUND Myocardial failure has a central role in the complex pathophysiology of septic shock and contributes to organ failure and death. During the sepsis-induced inflammatory process, specific factors are released that depress myocardial contractile function. We aimed to identify these mediators of myocardial depression in meningococcal septic shock. (More)
We identified 18 patients with the distinct clinical phenotype of susceptibility to disseminated nontuberculous mycobacterial infections, viral infections, especially with human papillomaviruses, and fungal infections, primarily histoplasmosis, and molds. This syndrome typically had its onset in adulthood (age range, 7-60 years; mean, 31.1 years; median, 32(More)
It is becoming increasingly apparent that Staphylococcus aureus are able to survive engulfment by macrophages, and that the intracellular environment of these host cells, which is essential to innate host defenses against invading microorganisms, may in fact provide a refuge for staphylococcal survival and dissemination. Based on this, we postulated that S.(More)
Staphylococcus epidermidis is a leading nosocomial pathogen. In contrast to its more aggressive relative S. aureus, it causes chronic rather than acute infections. In highly virulent S. aureus, phenol-soluble modulins (PSMs) contribute significantly to immune evasion and aggressive virulence by their strong ability to lyse human neutrophils. Members of the(More)
Circumvention of the host innate immune response is critical for bacterial pathogens to infect and cause disease. Here we demonstrate that the group A Streptococcus (GAS; Streptococcus pyogenes) protease SpyCEP (S. pyogenes cell envelope protease) cleaves granulocyte chemotactic protein 2 (GCP-2) and growth-related oncogene alpha (GROalpha), two potent(More)
Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs, or neutrophils) are critical for human innate immunity and kill most invading bacteria. However, pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus avoid destruction by PMNs to survive, thereby causing human infections. The molecular mechanisms used by pathogens to circumvent killing by the immune system remain largely undefined. To(More)