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We have identified a human cytomegalovirus cell-death suppressor, denoted vICA, encoded by the viral UL36 gene. vICA inhibits Fas-mediated apoptosis by binding to the pro-domain of caspase-8 and preventing its activation. vICA does not share significant sequence homology with FLIPs or other known suppressors of apoptosis, suggesting that this protein(More)
Caspase-dependent apoptosis has an important role in controlling viruses, and as a result, viruses often encode proteins that target this pathway. Caspase-dependent apoptosis can be activated from within the infected cell as an intrinsic response to replication-associated stresses or through death-inducing signals produced extrinsically by immune cells.(More)
Human cytomegalovirus carries a mitochondria-localized inhibitor of apoptosis (vMIA) that is conserved in primate cytomegaloviruses. We find that inactivating mutations within UL37x1, which encodes vMIA, do not substantially affect replication in TownevarATCC (Towne-BAC), a virus that carries a functional copy of the betaherpesvirus-conserved viral(More)
Despite antiviral prophylaxis, a high percentage (over 90%) of heart transplant patients experience active cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, diagnosed by detection of viral DNA in peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes within the first few months posttransplantation. Viral DNA was detected in mononuclear cells prior to detection in granulocytes from(More)
Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) genes UL36 and UL37 encode viral inhibitor of caspase-8-induced apoptosis (vICA) and viral mitochondria inhibitor of apoptosis (vMIA), respectively. Rhesus macaque CMV homologues, denoted Rh-vICA and Rh-vMIA, were identified and found to suppress apoptosis. One of these functions was conserved in MCMV, encoded by the M36 gene and(More)
Mutations can accumulate in the protease and gag genes of human immunodeficiency virus in patients who fail therapy with protease inhibitor drugs. Mutations within protease, the drug target, have been extensively studied. Mutations in gag have been less well studied, mostly concentrating on cleavage sites. A retroviral vector system has been adapted to(More)
OBJECTIVE There is evidence that gag contributes to protease inhibitor susceptibility in treatment-experienced patients. Moreover, protease inhibitor resistance-associated mutations can arise in gag in the absence of protease mutations in vitro. We wished to assess the contribution of full-length Gag to protease inhibitor susceptibility in viruses unexposed(More)
By 24 h after infection with human cytomegalovirus, the reticular mitochondrial network characteristic of uninfected fibroblasts was disrupted as mitochondria became punctate and dispersed. These alterations were associated with expression of the immediate-early (alpha) antiapoptotic UL37x1 gene product viral mitochondrion-localized inhibitor of apoptosis(More)
We demonstrated the presence of a single-stranded DNA-binding protein in human cytomegalovirus (CMV)-infected cells with properties analogous to those of herpes simplex virus (HSV) ICP8. Using monoclonal antibody specific for the CMV protein, we analyzed its fluorescence pattern and time of synthesis, mapped the gene encoding it by using a lambda gt11(More)
Viruses encode suppressors of cell death to block intrinsic and extrinsic host-initiated death pathways that reduce viral yield as well as control the termination of infection. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection terminates by a caspase-independent cell fragmentation process after an extended period of continuous virus production. The viral(More)