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Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is the second most common cause of dementia in people under the age of 65 years. A large proportion of FTD patients (35-50%) have a family history of dementia, consistent with a strong genetic component to the disease. In 1998, mutations in the gene encoding the microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) were shown to cause(More)
Bipolar disorder or manic depressive illness is a major psychiatric disorder that is characterized by fluctuation between two abnormal mood states. Mania is accompanied by symptoms of euphoria, irritability, or excitation, whereas depression is associated with low mood and decreased motivation and energy. The etiology is currently unknown; however, numerous(More)
BACKGROUND A protective effect of vitamin D on risk of multiple sclerosis (MS) has been proposed, but no prospective studies have addressed this hypothesis. METHODS Dietary vitamin D intake was examined directly in relation to risk of MS in two large cohorts of women: the Nurses' Health Study (NHS; 92,253 women followed from 1980 to 2000) and Nurses'(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common disease of the central nervous system that causes permanent disability in young adults. Based on strong circumstantial evidence, MS is considered to be putative autoimmune disorder, but much remains to be understood about the etiology and clinical onset of the disease. It seems unlikely that MS results from a(More)
BACKGROUND Incidence of multiple sclerosis is thought to be increasing, but this notion has been difficult to substantiate. In a longitudinal population-based dataset of patients with multiple sclerosis obtained over more than three decades, we did not show a difference in time to diagnosis by sex. We reasoned that if a sex-specific change in incidence was(More)
BACKGROUND Mutations in the tau gene have been reported in families with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) linked to chromosome 17. It remains uncertain how commonly such mutations are found in patients with FTD or non-Alzheimer dementia with or without a positive family history. OBJECTIVE To determine the frequency of tau mutations in patients with(More)
Genetic-environmental interactions probably underlie spontaneous human autoimmune disorders, a category of complex traits thought to include multiple sclerosis (MS). The geographical distribution and familial aggregation of this disease have often been ascribed to the role of infectious agents, but there is no consensus. Increased family risks range from(More)
Results from studies of twin concordance in multiple sclerosis have not conclusively differentiated between environmental and genetic factors that determine susceptibility to the disease. Published studies that have been based on case finding by public appeal have been characterized by difficulties in ascertainment. The data reported here are from a large(More)
BACKGROUND The apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype provides information on the risk of Alzheimer's disease, but the genotyping of patients and their family members has been discouraged. We examined the effect of genotype disclosure in a prospective, randomized, controlled trial. METHODS We randomly assigned 162 asymptomatic adults who had a parent with(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex trait in which allelic variation in the MHC class II region exerts the single strongest effect on genetic risk. Epidemiological data in MS provide strong evidence that environmental factors act at a population level to influence the unusual geographical distribution of this disease. Growing evidence implicates sunlight(More)