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Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is the second most common cause of dementia in people under the age of 65 years. A large proportion of FTD patients (35-50%) have a family history of dementia, consistent with a strong genetic component to the disease. In 1998, mutations in the gene encoding the microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) were shown to cause(More)
BACKGROUND A protective effect of vitamin D on risk of multiple sclerosis (MS) has been proposed, but no prospective studies have addressed this hypothesis. METHODS Dietary vitamin D intake was examined directly in relation to risk of MS in two large cohorts of women: the Nurses' Health Study (NHS; 92,253 women followed from 1980 to 2000) and Nurses'(More)
This study is a 7.5-year follow-up of a population-based series of twins with multiple sclerosis (MS) whose mean age now exceeds 50 years. The twin pairs were identified through the Canadian nationwide system of MS clinics and were drawn from a population of 5,463 patients. After 7.5 years, the monozygotic concordance rate increased from 25.9 to 30.8% and(More)
BACKGROUND Mutations in the tau gene have been reported in families with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) linked to chromosome 17. It remains uncertain how commonly such mutations are found in patients with FTD or non-Alzheimer dementia with or without a positive family history. OBJECTIVE To determine the frequency of tau mutations in patients with(More)
BACKGROUND Incidence of multiple sclerosis is thought to be increasing, but this notion has been difficult to substantiate. In a longitudinal population-based dataset of patients with multiple sclerosis obtained over more than three decades, we did not show a difference in time to diagnosis by sex. We reasoned that if a sex-specific change in incidence was(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex trait in which allelic variation in the MHC class II region exerts the single strongest effect on genetic risk. Epidemiological data in MS provide strong evidence that environmental factors act at a population level to influence the unusual geographical distribution of this disease. Growing evidence implicates sunlight(More)
Genetic-environmental interactions probably underlie spontaneous human autoimmune disorders, a category of complex traits thought to include multiple sclerosis (MS). The geographical distribution and familial aggregation of this disease have often been ascribed to the role of infectious agents, but there is no consensus. Increased family risks range from(More)
BACKGROUND Mutations in the presenilin-1 gene (PS1) account for a majority of patients with early-onset familial AD. However, the clinical indications and algorithms for genetic testing in dementia are still evolving. METHODS The entire open reading frame of the PS1 gene was sequenced in a series of 414 consecutive patients referred for diagnostic(More)
The dopamine transporter gene (DAT) has been implicated in a variety of disorders, including bipolar disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, cocaine-induced paranoia, Tourette's syndrome, and Parkinson's disease. As no clear functional polymorphism has been identified to date, studies rely on linkage disequilibrium (LD) to assess the possible(More)