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Competition between neurons is necessary for refining neural circuits during development and may be important for selecting the neurons that participate in encoding memories in the adult brain. To examine neuronal competition during memory formation, we conducted experiments with mice in which we manipulated the function of CREB (adenosine(More)
Multiple recent human imaging studies have suggested that the structure of the brain can change with learning. To investigate the mechanism behind such structural plasticity, we sought to determine whether maze learning in mice induces brain shape changes that are detectable by MRI and whether such changes are specific to the type of learning. Here we(More)
Throughout life, new neurons are continuously added to the dentate gyrus. As this continuous addition remodels hippocampal circuits, computational models predict that neurogenesis leads to degradation or forgetting of established memories. Consistent with this, increasing neurogenesis after the formation of a memory was sufficient to induce forgetting in(More)
Although the lateral nucleus of the amygdala (LA) is essential for conditioned auditory fear memory, an emerging theme is that plasticity in multiple brain regions contributes to fear memory formation. The LA receives direct projections from the auditory thalamus, specifically the medial division of the medial geniculate nucleus (MGm) and adjacent posterior(More)
Memory formation is thought to be mediated by dendritic-spine growth and restructuring. Myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) restricts spine growth in vitro, suggesting that this transcription factor negatively regulates the spine remodeling necessary for memory formation. Here we show that memory formation in adult mice was associated with changes in(More)
Severe hypoglycemia constitutes a medical emergency, involving seizures, coma and death. We hypothesized that seizures, during limited substrate availability, aggravate hypoglycemia-induced brain damage. Using immature isolated, intact hippocampi and frontal neocortical blocks subjected to low glucose perfusion, we characterized hypoglycemic(More)
Memories are thought to be encoded by sparsely distributed groups of neurons. However, identifying the precise neurons supporting a given memory (the memory trace) has been a long-standing challenge. We have shown previously that lateral amygdala (LA) neurons with increased cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein (CREB) are(More)
The principal defining feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is memory impairment. As the transcription factor CREB (cAMP/Ca(2+) responsive element-binding protein) is critical for memory formation across species, we investigated the role of CREB in a mouse model of AD. We found that TgCRND8 mice exhibit a profound impairment in the ability to form a spatial(More)
In the water maze, mice are trained to navigate to an escape platform located below the water's surface, and spatial learning is most commonly evaluated in a probe test in which the platform is removed from the pool. While contemporary tracking software provides precise positional information of mice for the duration of the probe test, existing performance(More)
The molecular mechanisms that regulate adult neural precursor cell (NPC) survival, and thus maintain adult neurogenesis, are not well defined. Here, we investigate the role of p63, a p53 family member, in adult NPC function in mice. Conditional ablation of p63 in adult NPCs or p63 haploinsufficiency led to reduced numbers of NPCs and newborn neurons in the(More)