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Activation of the Ras-MAPK signal transduction pathway is necessary for biological responses both to growth factors and ECM. Here, we provide evidence that phosphorylation of S298 of MAPK kinase 1 (MEK1) by p21-activated kinase (PAK) is a site of convergence for integrin and growth factor signaling. We find that adhesion to fibronectin induces(More)
Constitutively activated signaling molecules are often the primary drivers of malignancy, and are favored targets for therapeutic intervention. However, the effectiveness of targeted inhibition of cell signaling can be blunted by compensatory signaling which generates adaptive resistance mechanisms and reduces therapeutic responses. Therefore, it is(More)
Apoptosis is a regulated form of cell death that proceeds by defined biochemical pathways. Most apoptosis is controlled by interactions between pro-survival and pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins in which death is often the consequence of permeabilization of the mitochondrial outer membrane. Many drugs affect this equilibrium to favor apoptosis but this(More)
Th1 derived cytokines IFN-gamma and IL-2, Th2 cytokine IL-4, and ICAM-1 have been implicated in liver allograft rejection. In order to determine whether monitoring of cytokine profiles during the first days post-liver transplant can predict early rejection we measured IFN-gg, IL-2, sIL-2 receptor, IL-4 and ICAM-1 in 22 patients, in plasma samples obtained(More)
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