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The role of neuroinflammation is increasingly being recognised in a diverse range of cerebral pathologies, including traumatic brain injury (TBI). We used cerebral microdialysis and paired arterial and jugular bulb plasma sampling to characterise the production of 42 cytokines after severe TBI in 12 patients over 5 days. We compared two microdialysis(More)
There is an increasing recognition that following traumatic brain injury, a cascade of inflammatory mediators is produced, and contributes to the pathological consequences of central nervous system injury. This review summarises the key literature from pre-clinical models that underlies our understanding of innate inflammation following traumatic brain(More)
Humans chronically infected with schistosomiasis usually have impaired parasite Ag-specific lymphocyte proliferation and IFN-gamma production that may facilitate persistence of the parasite while producing little clinical disease. The mechanisms that contribute to the immunologic hyporesponsiveness in these patients remain undefined. IL-10 has been shown to(More)
Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL1ra) has demonstrated efficacy in a wide range of animal models of neuronal injury. We have previously published a randomised controlled study of IL1ra in human severe TBI, with concomitant microdialysis and plasma sampling of 42 cytokines and chemokines. In this study, we have used partial least squares discriminant(More)
Lactate has been regarded as a waste product of anaerobic metabolism of glucose. Evidence also suggests, however, that the brain may use lactate as an alternative fuel. Our aim was to determine the extent of lactate uptake from the circulation into the brain after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and to compare it with levels of lactate in the brain(More)
Monitoring of cerebrovascular pressure reactivity (PRx) has diagnostic and prognostic value in head-injured patients, but requires invasive monitoring of intracranial pressure (ICP). Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a noninvasive method that is suitable for continuous detection of cerebral blood volume changes. We compared a NIRS-based index of(More)
BACKGROUND Up to two-thirds of patients report moderate to severe surgical site pain after craniotomy procedures, and there is understandable reluctance to manage these symptoms with systemic opioids that may impair neurological assessment. Furthermore, there is a lack of consensus and evidence concerning alternative analgesia strategies for cranial(More)
Numerous statistical methods have been utilised to generate predictive models that identify clinical and biochemical parameters of prognostic value following traumatic brain injury. While these methods provide an accurate statistical description between these variables and outcome, they are difficult to interpret intuitively. Hierarchical log linear(More)
Cerebral vasospasm has traditionally been regarded as an important cause of delayed cerebral ischaemia (DCI) which occurs after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage, and often leads to cerebral infarction and poor neurological outcome. However, data from recent studies argue against a pure focus on vasospasm as the cause of delayed ischaemic complications.(More)
BACKGROUND Bradykinin, an endogenous vasodilator peptide, is metabolized by ACE. The aims of the present study were to determine the doses of B9340, a bradykinin receptor antagonist, that inhibit vasodilatation to exogenous bradykinin and to assess the contribution of bradykinin to the maintenance of basal vascular tone in patients with heart failure(More)