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In addition to protein coding sequence, the human genome contains a significant amount of regulatory DNA, the identification of which is proving somewhat recalcitrant to both in silico and functional methods. An approach that has been used with some success is comparative sequence analysis, whereby equivalent genomic regions from different organisms are(More)
Single point mutations at both synonymous and non-synonymous positions within exons can have severe effects on gene function through disruption of splicing. Predicting these mutations in silico purely from the genomic sequence is difficult due to an incomplete understanding of the multiple factors that may be responsible. In addition, little is known about(More)
Fish-mammal genomic comparisons have proved powerful in identifying conserved noncoding elements likely to be cis-regulatory in nature, and the majority of those tested in vivo have been shown to act as tissue-specific enhancers associated with genes involved in transcriptional regulation of development. Although most of these elements share little sequence(More)
Comparisons between diverse vertebrate genomes have uncovered thousands of highly conserved non-coding sequences, an increasing number of which have been shown to function as enhancers during early development. Despite their extreme conservation over 500 million years from humans to cartilaginous fish, these elements appear to be largely absent in(More)
Many conserved non-coding elements (CNEs) in vertebrate genomes have been shown to function as tissue-specific enhancers. However, the target genes of most CNEs are unknown. Here we show that the target genes of duplicated CNEs can be predicted by considering their neighbouring paralogous genes. This enables us to provide the first systematic estimate of(More)
Comparative genomics is currently one of the most popular approaches to study the regulatory architecture of vertebrate genomes. Fish-mammal genomic comparisons have proved powerful in identifying conserved non-coding elements likely to be distal cis-regulatory modules such as enhancers, silencers or insulators that control the expression of genes involved(More)
A major mechanism for the preservation of gene duplicates in the genome is thought to be mediated via loss or modification of cis-regulatory subfunctions between paralogs following duplication (a process known as regulatory subfunctionalization). Despite a number of gene expression studies that support this mechanism, no comprehensive analysis of regulatory(More)
Sequence conservation has traditionally been used as a means to target functional regions of complex genomes. In addition to its use in identifying coding regions of genes, the recent availability of whole genome data for a number of vertebrates has permitted high-resolution analyses of the noncoding "dark matter" of the genome. This has resulted in the(More)
We recently identified approximately 1400 conserved non-coding elements (CNEs) shared by the genomes of fugu (Takifugu rubripes) and human that appear to be associated with developmental regulation in vertebrates [Woolfe, A., Goodson, M., Goode, D.K., Snell, P., McEwen, G.K., Vavouri, T., Smith, S.F., North, P., Callaway, H., Kelly, K., Walter, K.,(More)
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