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Blogs are becoming an increasingly popular target for spammers. The existence of multiple vectors for spam injection, the potential of reaching many eyeballs with a single spam, and limited deployment of anti-spam technologies has led to a sustained increase in the volume and sophistication of attacks. This paper reviews the current state of spam in the(More)
A portion of the catalytic domain of a novel tyrosine kinase was cloned from mouse intestinal crypt cells, in a screen designed to identify kinases that may play a role in the regeneration of the intestinal epithelium (E Siyanova, MS Serfas, IA Mazo and AL Tyner, Oncogene 9, 2053-2057). We have cloned a cDNA encoding this kinase, termed sik for src-related(More)
We investigated the ability of highly purified recombinant platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) AB to interact with the products of alpha and beta receptor genes expressed in cells independently or concurrently. Although PDGF-AB lacked any detectable ability to bind or activate beta receptors in cells expressing only this receptor, efficient beta receptor(More)
Kinetically stable proteins are unique in that their stability is determined solely by kinetic barriers rather than by thermodynamic equilibria. To better understand how kinetic stability promotes protein survival under extreme environmental conditions, we analyzed the unfolding behavior and determined the structure of Nocardiopsis alba Protease A (NAPase),(More)
Using cDNA clone banks from differentiated and undifferentiated HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia cells, we have selected clones for genes which are regulated during this differentiation. Regulation of the corresponding mRNAs in HL-60 cells during both monocytic and neutrophilic differentiation was measured for 21 of these clones. The levels of mRNA hybridizing(More)
Both cDNA and genomic clones encoding the beta subunit of bovine luteinizing hormone (LH) have been isolated and characterized. The nucleotide sequence was determined for the entire gene and 776 base pairs of 5'-flanking sequence. The mRNA cap site and polyadenylation site were mapped by primer extension and S1 nuclease protection, respectively. The bovine(More)
A cDNA clone for the pre-alpha subunit of the pituitary glycoprotein hormones has been isolated from a bovine pituitary cDNA library through the use of a pool of synthetic oligodeoxynucleotide probes. This clone, designated pB alpha, contains a 564-base pair insert which includes a portion of the signal sequence, the entire coding sequence of the mature(More)
Biologically active bovine luteinizing hormone (LH) has been obtained through expression of the alpha- and LH beta-subunit genes in stably transformed clones of DUXB11, a Chinese hamster ovary cell line deficient in dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). Expression of alpha-and LH beta-subunit mRNAs of the expected sizes (approximately 910 and 770 nucleotides,(More)
Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), a major mitogen for mesenchymal cells, is a disulfide-bonded dimer of two subunit polypeptides named A and B. All of the three possible dimeric forms, i.e. AA, BB, and AB, exist in nature. The dimeric structure has been presumed to be necessary for biological activity, since reduction of the dimer results in loss of(More)
The mature 109-amino-acid human platelet-derived growth factor B (PDGF-B) peptide is derived by intracellular processing from a 241-amino-acid precursor synthesized in mammalian cells, with removal of 81 N-terminal and 51 C-terminal amino acids. In order to produce directly the mature 109-amino acid PDGF-B peptide as a recombinant protein in Escherichia(More)