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The hydrolysis of sulfate ester conjugates is frequently required prior to analysis for a range of analytical techniques including gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Sulfate hydrolysis may be achieved with commercial crude arylsulfatase enzyme preparations such as that derived from Helix pomatia but these contain additional enzyme activities such(More)
The need for laboratories accredited by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) to develop methods of analysis for steroids excreted primarily as their sulfate conjugates has faced significant analytical challenges. One of the issues relates to the extraction of these metabolites from urine in a relatively pure state. The use of (-)-N,N-dimethylephedrinium(More)
An alternative calibration procedure for the gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS) measurements of the World Antidoping Agency (WADA) Accredited Laboratories is presented. To alleviate the need for externally calibrated CO₂ gas for GC-C-IRMS analysis of urinary steroid metabolites, calibration using an external standard(More)
The administration of synthetic steroid copies is one of the most important issues facing sports. Doping control laboratories accredited by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) require methods of analysis that allow endogenous steroids to be distinguished from their synthetic analogs in urine. The ability to measure isotope distribution at natural abundance(More)
The detection of steroids originating from synthetic precursors in relation to their chemically identical natural analogues has proven to be a significant challenge for doping control laboratories accredited by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). Endogenous steroid abuse may be confirmed by utilising the atomic specificity of gas(More)
Gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS) is the preferred method of confirming the administration of exogenous testosterone by athletes. This relies on synthetic testosterone preparations being depleted in (13) C compared to natural testosterone. There is concern, however, about the existence of synthetic testosterone(More)
Studies have shown that the administration of androstenedione (ADIONE) significantly increases the urinary ratio of testosterone glucuronide to epitestosterone glucuronide (T/E) - measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) - in subjects with a normal ( approximately 1) or naturally high (>1) initial values. However, the urinary T/E ratio has(More)
The demise of transputer marks an end to a leading multi-processor component in the industry. This has led many companies to design their own processing nodes to substitute transputer in their production line. Companies like Quantel has chosen the StrongARM processor as the main processor for the replacement unit in their distributed control system, for(More)
Adrenosterone (androst-4-ene-3,11,17-trione, 11-oxoandrostenedione) is an endogenous steroid hormone that has been promoted as a dietary supplement capable of reducing body fat and increasing muscle mass. It is proposed that adrenosterone may function as an inhibitor of the 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 enzyme (11beta-HSD1), which is primarily(More)
Gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS) is now established as a robust and mature analytical technique for the doping control of endogenous anabolic androgenic steroids in human sport. It relies on the assumption that the carbon isotope ratios of naturally produced steroids are significantly different to synthetically(More)