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We review recent empirical evidence that shows political campaigns are more potent than widely believed, focusing on the conceptual and methodological advances that have produced these findings. Conceptually, a broader definition of effects--that includes learning and agenda-control, as well as vote choice--characterizes contemporary research. This research(More)
The “Hedonistic Paradox” states that homo economicus, or someonewho seeks happiness for himor herself, will not find it, but the person who helps others will. This study examines two questions in connection with happiness and generosity. First, domore generous people, as identified in dictator experiments, report on average greater happiness, or subjective(More)
<i>Social Heroes</i> is a pervasive social game in which players trade points by tagging each other using Twitter. Through the accumulation of tags and points in defined combinations, they earn achievement awards and gain the ability to create their own tags and achievements. Taking the metaphor of APIs from software development and drawing parallels(More)
Modern density functional theory and powerful contemporary computers have made it possible to explore complex reactions of value in organic synthesis. We describe recent explorations of mechanisms and origins of stereoselectivities with density functional theory calculations. The specific functionals and basis sets that are routinely used in computational(More)
The transition states of aldol reactions catalyzed by vicinal diamines are characterized with density functional calculations. It was found that a cyclic transition state involving a nine-membered hydrogen-bonded ring is preferred. The crown (chair-chair) conformations of the transition state account for the observed stereoselectivity of these reactions.
A model for the stereoselectivity of intramolecular alkylations by N,N'-disubstituted cinchona alkaloids reported by Xiang et al. was established using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The stereocontrol is based on the minimal distortion of the transition state (TS) and catalyst required to achieve favorable electrostatic interactions in the(More)
The mechanism and sources of asymmetric induction in Nazarov reactions reported by Tius and co-workers have been determined with quantum chemical calculations. A chiral vicinal diamine forms an enamine-iminium adduct with α-ketoenones, and this undergoes a cationic conrotatory electrocyclization. The chiral diamine imparts stereocontrol in the(More)
The “Hedonistic Paradox” states that homo economicus, or someone who seeks happiness for himor herself, will not find it, but the person who helps others will. This study examines two questions in connection with happiness and generosity. First, do more generous people, as identified in dictator experiments, report on average greater happiness, or(More)
The sources of asymmetric induction in aldol reactions catalyzed by cinchona alkaloid-derived amines, and chiral vicinal diamines in general, have been determined by density functional theory calculations. Four vicinal diamine-catalyzed aldol reactions were examined. The cyclic transition states of these reactions involve nine-membered hydrogen-bonded rings(More)