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Rational models of cognition typically consider the abstract computational problems posed by the environment, assuming that people are capable of optimally solving those problems. This differs from more traditional formal models of cognition, which focus on the psychological processes responsible for behavior. A basic challenge for rational models is thus(More)
People have strong intuitions about the influence objects exert upon one another when they collide. Because people's judgments appear to deviate from Newtonian mechanics, psychologists have suggested that people depend on a variety of task-specific heuristics. This leaves open the question of how these heuristics could be chosen, and how to integrate them(More)
Models of categorization make different representational assumptions , with categories being represented by prototypes, sets of exemplars, and everything in between. Rational models of categorization justify these representational assumptions in terms of different schemes for estimating probability distributions. However, they do not answer the question of(More)
From language learning and categorization to visual perception and motor control, the tasks that the brain must solve require the use of noisy, incomplete information about the world to make generalizations and future decisions. How do people make inductive inferences and guide their behavior on the basis of such limited data? The computational challenge in(More)
The authors investigated whether expertise is more likely to mitigate age declines when experts rely on environmental support in a pilot/Air Traffic Control (ATC) communication task. Pilots and nonpilots listened to ATC messages that described a route through an airspace, while they referred to a chart of the airspace. They read back (repeated) each message(More)
A key challenge for cognitive psychology is the investigation of mental representations, such as object categories, subjective probabilities, choice utilities, and memory traces. In many cases, these representations can be expressed as a non-negative function defined over a set of objects. We present a behavioral method for estimating these functions. Our(More)
Analyzing the data of individuals has several advantages over analyzing the data combined across the individuals (the latter we term group analysis): Grouping can distort the form of data, and different individuals might perform the task using different processes and parameters. These factors notwithstanding, we demonstrate conditions in which group(More)
OBJECTIVES Because insomnia is a common comorbidity of chronic pain, scientific and clinical interest in the relationship of pain and sleep has surged in recent years. Although experimental studies suggest a sleep-interfering property of pain and a pain-enhancing effect of sleep deprivation/fragmentation, the temporal association between pain and sleep as(More)