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BACKGROUND The reasons for black/white disparities in HIV epidemics among men who have sex with men have puzzled researchers for decades. Understanding reasons for these disparities requires looking beyond individual-level behavioral risk to a more comprehensive framework. METHODS AND FINDINGS From July 2010-December 2012, 803 men (454 black, 349 white)(More)
OBJECTIVES We evaluated the role of poverty in racial/ethnic disparities in HIV prevalence across levels of urbanization. METHODS Using national HIV surveillance data from the year 2009, we constructed negative binomial models, stratified by urbanization, with an outcome of race-specific, county-level HIV prevalence rates and covariates of race/ethnicity,(More)
BACKGROUND Although many studies have documented the dramatic declines in heart disease mortality in the United States at the national level, little attention has been given to the temporal changes in the geographic patterns of heart disease mortality. METHODS AND RESULTS Age-adjusted and spatially smoothed county-level heart disease death rates were(More)
Data reporting sexually transmitted infection (STI) incidence rates among HIV-negative U.S. men who have sex with men (MSM) are lacking. In addition, it is difficult to analyze the effect of STI on HIV acquisition given that sexual risk behaviors confound the relationship between bacterial STIs and incident HIV. The InvolveMENt study was a longitudinal(More)
BACKGROUND Examining small-area differences in the strength of declining heart disease mortality by race and sex provides important context for current racial and geographic disparities and identifies localities that could benefit from targeted interventions. We identified and described temporal trends in declining county-level heart disease mortality by(More)
PURPOSE To demonstrate the implications of choosing analytical methods for quantifying spatiotemporal trends, we compare the assumptions, implementation, and outcomes of popular methods using county-level heart disease mortality in the United States between 1973 and 2010. METHODS We applied four regression-based approaches (joinpoint regression, both(More)
BACKGROUND Exploring causal associations in HIV research requires careful consideration of numerous epidemiologic limitations. First, a primary cause of HIV, unprotected anal intercourse (UAI), is time-varying and, if it is also associated with an exposure of interest, may be on a confounding path. Second, HIV is a rare outcome, even in high-risk(More)
This map shows model-based, county-level percentage decline in heart disease death rates from 1973 to 2010 in the Southern United States. During this 37-year period, the fastest declines (in yellow) occurred primarily on the East Coast and central and west Texas, and the slowest declines (in dark blue) were concentrated largely in the counties along the(More)
BACKGROUND Place is critical to our understanding of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections among men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States. However, within the scientific literature, place is almost always represented by residential location, suggesting a fundamental assumption of equivalency between neighborhood of residence, place of(More)