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Atlantic hurricane activity has increased significantly since 1995 (refs 1-4), but the underlying causes of this increase remain uncertain. It is widely thought that rising Atlantic sea surface temperatures have had a role in this, but the magnitude of this contribution is not known. Here we quantify this contribution for storms that formed in the tropical(More)
We have carried out a comprehensive survey of the isotopic compositions (H, B, C, N, O, and S) of a suite of interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), including both cluster and individual particles. Isotopic imaging with the NanoSIMS shows the presence of numerous discrete hotspots that are strongly enriched in N, up to 1300&. A number of the IDPs also contain(More)
Much of the property damage from natural hazards in the United States is caused by landfalling hurricanes--strong tropical cyclones that reach the coast. For the southeastern Atlantic coast of the US, a statistical method for forecasting the occurrence of landfalling hurricanes for the season ahead has been reported, but the physical mechanisms linking the(More)
Utilizing a broadly-tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser for scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM), we measure infrared spectra of particles of explosives by probing characteristic nitro-group resonances in the 7.1-7.9 µm wavelength range. Measurements are presented with spectral resolution of 0.25 cm(-1), spatial(More)
Alkylsiloxane self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) are used in the semiconductor industry and, more recently, as proxies for organics adsorbed on airborne mineral dust and on buildings and construction materials. A number of methods have been used for removing the SAM from the substrate after reaction or use, particularly plasmas or piranha (H2SO4/H2O2)(More)
The atomic force microscope was used to image adsorption of a monoclonal IgM on mica in real time. Under the smallest possible force we could achieve (<4 nN), the cantilever tip behaved as a molecular broom and was observed to orient protein aggregates in strands oriented perpendicularly to the facet of the cantilever tip. Rotating the scan direction(More)
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