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For the majority of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) mutations, antisense oligonucleotide (AON)-mediated exon skipping has the potential to restore a functional protein. Here we show that weekly intravenous injections of morpholino phosphorodiamidate (morpholino) AONs induce expression of functional levels of dystrophin in body-wide skeletal muscles of the(More)
Clear cell renal carcinomas (ccRCCs) can display intratumor heterogeneity (ITH). We applied multiregion exome sequencing (M-seq) to resolve the genetic architecture and evolutionary histories of ten ccRCCs. Ultra-deep sequencing identified ITH in all cases. We found that 73-75% of identified ccRCC driver aberrations were subclonal, confounding estimates of(More)
Antisense oligonucleotide-mediated alternative splicing has great potential for treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) caused by mutations within nonessential regions of the dystrophin gene. We have recently shown in the dystrophic mdx mouse that exon 23, bearing a nonsense mutation, can be skipped after intramuscular injection of a specific(More)
Defining mechanisms that generate intratumour heterogeneity and branched evolution may inspire novel therapeutic approaches to limit tumour diversity and adaptation. SETD2 (Su(var), Enhancer of zeste, Trithorax-domain containing 2) trimethylates histone-3 lysine-36 (H3K36me3) at sites of active transcription and is mutated in diverse tumour types, including(More)
Spatial and temporal dissection of the genomic changes occurring during the evolution of human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) may help elucidate the basis for its dismal prognosis. We sequenced 25 spatially distinct regions from seven operable NSCLCs and found evidence of branched evolution, with driver mutations arising before and after subclonal(More)
A set of plasmids that contain fragments of the bacteriophage P4 genome has been constructed by deleting portions of a P4-ColE1 hybrid. A P4 genetic map has been established and related to the physical map by examining the ability of these plasmids to rescue various P4 mutations. The P4 virl mutation and P4 genes involved in DNA replication (alpha),(More)
The Bacillus subtilis chromosomal locus that contains the genes encoding the menaquinone biosynthetic enzymes (the men genes) was cloned by using an integrable plasmid vector. The men cluster was reconstituted on three overlapping recombinant plasmids, and a tentative gene order was derived. Evaluations of the direction of transcription and of(More)
Papillary renal cell carcinoma (pRCC) is an important subtype of kidney cancer with a problematic pathological classification and highly variable clinical behaviour. Here we sequence the genomes or exomes of 31 pRCCs, and in four tumours, multi-region sequencing is undertaken. We identify BAP1, SETD2, ARID2 and Nrf2 pathway genes (KEAP1, NHE2L2 and CUL3) as(More)
Genomic analysis of multi-focal renal cell carcinomas from an individual with a germline VHL mutation offers a unique opportunity to study tumor evolution. We perform whole exome sequencing on four clear cell renal cell carcinomas removed from both kidneys of a patient with a germline VHL mutation. We report that tumors arising in this context are clonally(More)