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Humans and other animals change their behavior in response to unexpected outcomes. The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is implicated in such adaptive responding, based on evidence from reversal tasks. Yet these tasks confound using information about expected outcomes with learning when those expectations are violated. OFC is critical for the former function;(More)
We monitored single-neuron activity in the orbitofrontal cortex of rats performing a time-discounting task in which the spatial location of the reward predicted whether the delay preceding reward delivery would be short or long. We found that rewards delivered after a short delay elicited a stronger neuronal response than those delivered after a long delay(More)
Neuregulin 1 (NRG1) is an important growth factor involved in the development and plasticity of the central nervous system. Since its identification as a susceptibility gene for schizophrenia, several transgenic mouse models have been employed to elucidate the role NRG1 may play in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disease. Unfortunately very few studies have(More)
Amygdala D1 receptors have been implicated in the motivating effects of cocaine-conditioned cues and cocaine itself, but the specific nucleus involved is unclear. Thus, we infused the D1 antagonist, SCH-23390, into the rostral basolateral amygdala (rBLA), caudal basolateral amygdala (cBLA), or central amygdala (CEA), and tested its effects on(More)
Clinical observations suggest that certain gut and dietary factors may transiently worsen symptoms in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), epilepsy and some inheritable metabolic disorders. Propionic acid (PPA) is a short chain fatty acid and an important intermediate of cellular metabolism. PPA is also a by-product of a subpopulation of human gut(More)
We have previously shown that male rats exposed to gestational stress exhibit phenotypes resembling what is observed in schizophrenia, including hypersensitivity to amphetamine, blunted sensory gating, disrupted social behavior, impaired stress axis regulation, and aberrant prefrontal expression of genes involved in synaptic plasticity. Maternal(More)
The cognitive deficits observed in schizophrenia are considered a core feature of the disease. Neuregulin-1 is a risk gene for schizophrenia that is involved in many neurodevelopmental and synaptic plasticity-related processes relevant to schizophrenia. Here, we have utilized a rat model (Nrg1(Tn)), which is hypomorphic for the neuregulin-1 (Nrg1) gene, to(More)
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