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Many immune correlates of CD8(+) T-cell-mediated control of HIV replication, including polyfunctionality, proliferative ability, and inhibitory receptor expression, have been discovered. However, no functional correlates using ex vivo cells have been identified with the known ability to cause the direct elimination of HIV-infected cells. We have recently(More)
CTL are endowed with the ability to eliminate pathogens through perforin-mediated cytotoxic activity. The mechanism for perforin-mediated Ag-specific killing has been solely attributed to cytotoxic granule exocytosis from activated CD8(+) T cells. In this study, we redefine this mechanism, demonstrating that virus-specific CD8(+) T cells rapidly up-regulate(More)
The prevailing paradigm of T lymphocyte control of viral replication is that the protective capacity of virus-specific CD8(+) T cells is directly proportional to the number of functions they can perform, with IL-2 production capacity considered critical. Having recently defined rapid perforin upregulation as a novel effector function of antigen-specific(More)
CD8+ T cells are often referred to as cytotoxic T lymphocytes because of their ability to induce the apoptosis of cells infected with an intracellular pathogen, thereby limiting the spread of an infection to previously uninfected cells. CD8+ T cells produce many proteins-including perforin, various granzymes, and granulysin-that are responsible for inducing(More)
As a group, poxviruses have been shown to infect a wide variety of animal species. However, there is individual variability in the range of species able to be productively infected. In this study, we observed that ectromelia virus (ECTV) does not replicate efficiently in cultured rabbit RK13 cells. Conversely, vaccinia virus (VACV) replicates well in these(More)
Adoptive T cell therapy (ACT) is an emerging cancer treatment paradigm with success in early phase clinical trials in melanoma and B cell leukemia. However, ACT has been unsuccessful in tumors arising from the colorec-tum, in part due to antigen-dependent " on-target off-tumor " toxicities producing damage to normal tissues. These adverse events reflect the(More)
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