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We collected 3D ultrasound images of the medial gastrocnemius muscle belly (MG) in 16 children with spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy (SHCP) (mean age: 7.8 years; range: 4-12) and 15 typically-developing (TD) children (mean age: 9.5 years; range: 4-13). All children with SHCP had limited passive dorsiflexion range on the affected side with the knee extended(More)
Ultrasound images were obtained of the medial gastrocnemius at different ankle joint positions with the knee extended. Fascicle length and deep fascicle angle were measured in five normally developing adults (mean age 33 years, age range 24 to 36 years) and in five normally developing children (mean age 7.8 years, age range 7 to 11 years), and in seven(More)
Outcome in 24 ambulant children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy, in whom multilevel surgical intervention was recommended following gait analysis, is reviewed. Twelve children had surgical intervention (treatment group; eight males, four females; mean age 9 years 10 months, SD 3 years 4 months) while the other 12 did not (control group; five males,(More)
Ambulant young people with cerebral palsy (CP) have reduced muscle volumes in their lower limbs (as low as 50% of their weight-matched typically-developing peers). Yet, they may complete a 'timed up-and-go' test at similar speeds to unaffected persons. Perhaps, these individuals are able to maintain high levels of function because their muscle deficits have(More)
In this retrospective study, we quantified the mean extensor moment at the ankle, knee and hip over the stance period in a group of independently ambulant children with spastic diplegia (n = 90; 167 limbs) and in a group of normally-developing (ND) children (n = 22; 22 limbs). The mean knee extensor moment and the mean support moment demonstrated greater(More)
Children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) have small, weak muscles. However, change in muscle size due to resistance training in this group is unknown. We investigated the effect of plantarflexor strengthening on muscle volume, gait, and function in 13 ambulant children with spastic CP (seven males, six females; mean age 10 y 11 mo, SD 3 y 0 mo, range 6 y(More)
Two-dimensional ultrasound imaging was combined with motion analysis technology to measure distances between remote anatomical landmarks. The length of the belly of the medial gastrocnemius muscle in five normal adults (nine limbs) was estimated using this technique. Our results in vivo were similar to the reported data for the lengths of muscles in(More)
AIM Muscle weakness is a feature of individuals with spastic cerebral palsy (SCP) but there are few reports in the literature of muscle volume in this group. This study compares muscle volumes in adolescents and young adults with SCP with those of their typically developing (TD) peers. DESIGN Measurements of the volumes of nine major lower limb muscles in(More)
Skeletal muscle deformity is common in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP), but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. This review explores some possible factors which may influence the development of muscle deformity in CP. Normal muscle function and growth appear to depend on the interaction of neuronal, endocrinal, nutritional, and mechanical(More)
We assessed the architecture of the medial gastrocnemius in nine children (five males, four females; age range 6 to 15 years; mean 10 years 10 months, SD 3 years 6 months) with spastic diplegia by ultrasound imaging before and after a gastrocnemius recession. The children were ambulant (seven independent, one with a posterior walker, one using crutches)(More)