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The scorpion toxin CnErg1 binds to human ether-a-go-go related gene (hERG) K(+) channels with a 1:1 stoichiometry and high affinity. However, in contrast to other scorpion toxin-ion channel interactions, the inhibition of macroscopic hERG currents by high concentrations of CnErg1 is incomplete. In this study, we have probed the molecular basis for this(More)
The Kv11.1 potassium channel is the molecular target for the majority of drugs implicated in acquired long QT syndrome, the most common cause of drug-induced sudden cardiac death, and a common reason for drug restriction or withdrawal from the market. While the IC50 for block of Kv11.1 is commonly used to estimate the risk of acquired long QT syndrome, this(More)
The effects of the covalent modifier of amino groups, 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS) on the single-channel properties of purified sheep cardiac ryanodine receptors (RyR) incorporated into planar phospholipid bilayers were investigated. DIDS increased single-channel conductance and open probability (P(o)) and induced unique(More)
The ether-à-go-go (EAG) family of voltage-gated K(+) channels contains three subfamilies, EAG, ether-à-go-go related (ERG) and ether-à-go-go like (ELK). The human ether-à-go-go related gene (hERG) K(+) channel has been of significant interest because loss of function in the hERG channel is associated with a markedly increased risk of cardiac arrhythmias.(More)
Human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) potassium channels exhibit unique gating kinetics characterized by unusually slow activation and deactivation. The N terminus of the channel, which contains an amphipathic helix and an unstructured tail, has been shown to be involved in regulation of this slow deactivation. However, the mechanism of how this occurs(More)
The energy efficiency of neural signal transmission is important not only as a limiting factor in brain architecture, but it also influences the interpretation of functional brain imaging signals. Action potential generation in mammalian, versus invertebrate, axons is remarkably energy efficient. Here we demonstrate that this increase in energy efficiency(More)
Human ether-à-go-go-related gene (hERG) K(+) channels have unusual gating kinetics. Characterised by slow activation/deactivation but rapid inactivation/recovery from inactivation, the unique gating kinetics underlie the central role hERG channels play in cardiac repolarisation. The slow activation and deactivation kinetics are regulated in part by the(More)
Suramin and structurally related compounds increase not only the open probability (P(o)) of ryanodine receptor (RyR) channels but also the single-channel conductance in a unique characteristic manner. In this report, we examine the mechanisms underlying the complex changes to cardiac RyR channel function caused by suramin and the evidence that these changes(More)
We have studied the interaction of CnErg1, a member of the gamma-KTX subfamily of scorpion toxins with the inactivation-deficient S631A hERG channel. In the background of this mutation, we observed a mechanistic switch from turret block, characteristic of the action of gamma-KTXs on Kv11-type channels, to pore plugging, characteristic of alpha-KTX block of(More)
The intracellular domains of many ion channels are important for fine-tuning their gating kinetics. In Kv11.1 channels, the slow kinetics of channel deactivation, which are critical for their function in the heart, are largely regulated by the N-terminal N-Cap and Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS) domains, as well as the C-terminal cyclic nucleotide-binding homology(More)