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Propensity for drug dependence shows great diversity that is related to intrinsic neurobiological factors. This diversity is important both for the understanding of these traits and for the development of therapies. The goals of the study were (1) to define, using ultrasonic vocalization characteristics, inter-individual differences in rats’ propensity for(More)
The 50 kHz ultrasonic vocalisations (USVs) that are emitted by rats are dependent on activity of dopaminergic neurons projecting from the ventral tegmental area to the limbic and cortical structures. According to many experimental data, emission of the 50 kHz USV reflects a positive emotional state. The appetitive calls are also emitted in response to the(More)
The effects of 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist buspirone, a nonselective (diazepam), and a selective (zolpidem) GABA(A) receptor agonist were compared in the open field test of neophobia. Unhabituated rats were pretreated with the drugs once, prior to a first exposure to the open field, and their behavior was recorded both during this test and during a second(More)
The contribution of GABAergic mechanisms to rat emotional behavior in two animal models of anxiety (open field test of neophobia and aversively conditioned freezing reaction), was confirmed by pharmacological analysis, using anxiolytic (midazolam) and anxiogenic (picrotoxin) compounds. Both substances are known to modulate GABA(A) receptors' activity in a(More)
The opposite effects of the classical antipsychotic, haloperidol, and atypical neuroleptic, olanzapine, in the rat ultrasonic vocalization test of anxiety were observed. The present data are discussed in relation to growing body of evidence of specific brain biochemical changes after pretreatment with different antipsychotics.
The present study was designed to determine the role of the kynurenine pathway (KP) in the mechanism of action of valproate (VPA). Therefore, we investigated changes in the concentrations of tryptophan (TRP), kynurenic acid (KYNA), and kynurenine (KYN) in the brain and plasma following VPA administration (50, 250 and 500mg/kg i.p.). The most important(More)
This is the first study designed to compare the pattern of stimulation of c-Fos in selected brain structures after an acute administration of morphine and methadone. Methadone and morphine induced activation of c-Fos protein in the terminal forebrain projecting areas of the brain dopaminergic system, i.e. the striatum and nucleus accumbens. Taking into(More)
The aim of the study was to further explore the anatomical and neurochemical background of differences in response to the conditioned aversive stimuli. The different patterns of behavioral coping strategies (a conditioned freezing response and ultrasonic vocalization) were analyzed in animals differing in their response to the acute painful stimulation, a(More)
The aim of the study was to examine the neurochemical background of differences in the individual responses to conditioned aversive stimuli, using the strength of a rat conditioned freezing response (the contextual fear test), as a discriminating variable. It was shown that low responders (LR), i.e. rats with duration of a freezing response one standard(More)
This study assessed behaviour, as measured by 50kHz calls related to positive affect, in rats with different fear conditioned response strengths: low-anxiety rats (LR) and high-anxiety rats (HR), after amphetamine injection in a two-injection protocol (TIPS). The results showed that the first dose of amphetamine evoked similar behavioural effects in(More)